FAILSAFE ®

THE ELECTRONIC JOURNAL OF
THE FORUM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL LAW,
SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND FINANCE ™
(F.E.L.S.E.F. ®)

SPRING 2010


SSEC University of Wisconsin at Madison Global Composite


[ Image appears courtesy of the Space Science and Engineering Center of the University of Wisconsin-
Madison Graduate School. For other fascinating imagery, please visit the SSEC Web site by clicking here].


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TABLE OF CONTENTS:

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LETTER FROM THE
FOUNDER, CHAIRMAN AND EDITOR



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GUEST COLUMN:


GLOBAL WARMING ADVOCATES IGNORE THE BOULDERS

By George F. Will


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SPECIAL REPORT # 1:


CLIMATE SCIENTISTS CONTRADICTED SPIRIT OF OPENESS
BY REJECTING INFORMATION REQUESTS


SPECIAL REPORT # 2:


SCIENTISTS TAKING STEPS TO DEFEND WORK ON CLIMATE


SPECIAL REPORT # 3:


GLOBAL WARMING "SCIENTIST-ADVOCATES" ON THE RETREAT:
RETRACT MULTIPLE ERROR-PLAGUED UNSCIENTIFIC CLAIMS
UNDER GROWING PRESSURE FROM MORE CORNERS


SPECIAL REPORT # 4:


NORTHERN HEMISPHERE'S WINTER OF 2009-2010
BREAKS RECORDS FOR COLD AND SNOW MOST EVERYWHERE,
INCLUDING WASHINGTON, DC - BALTIMORE CORRIDOR


SPECIAL REPORT # 5:


SENATORS TO PROPOSE ABANDONING CAP-AND-TRADE


SPECIAL REPORT # 6:


EU CLIMATE CHIEF PESSIMISTIC AFTER US VISIT


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F.E.L.S.E.F. ® GLOBAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL NETWORKS


F.E.L.S.E.F. ® RULES FOR SUBSCRIPTIONS, SUBMISSIONS, AND NETWORK MEMBERSHIP



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LETTER FROM THE
FOUNDER, CHAIRMAN AND EDITOR


Washington, D.C.,
March 21, 2010


Dear Readers:

Given that the stories selected for this issue couldn't be more self-explanatory, I am going to refrain from doing any setting up of them. The order of presentation should also be telling.


That's it from me for this issue.

Sincerely,

Michael G. Frodl


P.S. I invite all our readers to share with me their comments, good or bad, about our online journal and our Web site, as well as suggestions on how to improve them. Please send an e-mail directly to me at
mgfrodl@tidalwave.net. I promise to answer each reader personally and to devote at least as much thought, if not more, in my response as he or she devotes to his or her own original message. Many of the countless improvements that we have adopted in the past few months were in response to readers' comments and suggestions. The journal and the Web site still have to evolve and improve. I hope that you will all keep helping with this ongoing mutual effort of ours. Thank you.


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GUEST COLUMN:



GLOBAL WARMING ADVOCATES IGNORE THE BOULDERS

By George F. Will WASHINGTON POST Sunday, February 21, 2010; A19


Science, many scientists say, has been restored to her rightful throne because progressives have regained power. Progressives, say progressives, emulate the cool detachment of scientific discourse. So hear the calm, collected voice of a scientist lavishly honored by progressives, Rajendra Pachauri.

He is chairman of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which shared the 2007 version of the increasingly weird Nobel Peace Prize. Denouncing persons skeptical about the shrill certitudes of those who say global warming poses an imminent threat to the planet, he says:

"They are the same people who deny the link between smoking and cancer. They are people who say that asbestos is as good as talcum powder -- and I hope they put it on their faces every day."

Do not judge him as harshly as he speaks of others. Nothing prepared him for the unnerving horror of encountering disagreement. Global warming alarmists, long cosseted by echoing media, manifest an interesting incongruity -- hysteria and name-calling accompanying serene assertions about the "settled science" of climate change. Were it settled, we would be spared the hyperbole that amounts to Ring Lardner's "Shut up, he explained."

The global warming industry, like Alexander in the famous children's story, is having a terrible, horrible, no good, very bad day. Actually, a bad three months, which began Nov. 19 with the publication of e-mails indicating attempts by scientists to massage data and suppress dissent in order to strengthen "evidence" of global warming.

But there already supposedly was a broad, deep and unassailable consensus. Strange.

Next came the failure of The World's Last -- We Really, Really Mean It -- Chance, a.k.a. the Copenhagen climate change summit. It was a nullity, and since then things have been getting worse for those trying to stampede the world into a spasm of prophylactic statism.

In 2007, before the economic downturn began enforcing seriousness and discouraging grandstanding, seven western U.S. states (and four Canadian provinces) decided to fix the planet on their own. California's Arnold Schwarzenegger intoned, "We cannot wait for the United States government to get its act together on the environment." The 11 jurisdictions formed what is now called the Western Climate Initiative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions starting in 2012.

Or not. Arizona Gov. Jan Brewer recently suspended her state's participation in what has not yet begun, and some Utah legislators are reportedly considering a similar action. Brewer worries, sensibly, that it would impose costs on businesses and consumers. She also ordered reconsideration of Arizona's strict vehicle emission rules, modeled on incorrigible California's, lest they raise the cost of new cars.

Last week, BP America, ConocoPhillips and Caterpillar, three early members of the 31-member U.S. Climate Action Partnership, said: Oh, never mind. They withdrew from USCAP. It is a coalition of corporations and global warming alarm groups that was formed in 2007 when carbon rationing legislation seemed inevitable and collaboration with the rationers seemed prudent. A spokesman for Conoco said: "We need to spend time addressing the issues that impact our shareholders and consumers."

What a concept.

Global warming skeptics, too, have erred. They have said there has been no statistically significant warming for 10 years. Phil Jones, former director of Britain's Climatic Research Unit, source of the leaked documents, admits it has been 15 years. Small wonder that support for radical remedial action, sacrificing wealth and freedom to combat warming, is melting faster than the Himalayan glaciers that an IPCC report asserted, without serious scientific support, could disappear by 2035.

Jones also says that if during what is called the Medieval Warm Period (circa 800-1300) global temperatures may have been warmer than today's, that would change the debate. Indeed it would. It would complicate the task of indicting contemporary civilization for today's supposedly unprecedented temperatures.

Last week, Todd Stern, America's special envoy for climate change -- yes, there is one; and people wonder where to begin cutting government -- warned that those interested in "undermining action on climate change" will seize on "whatever tidbit they can find." Tidbits like specious science, and the absence of warming?

It is tempting to say, only half in jest, that Stern's portfolio violates the First Amendment, which forbids government from undertaking the establishment of religion. A religion is what the faith in catastrophic man-made global warming has become. It is now a tissue of assertions impervious to evidence, assertions that everything, including a historic blizzard, supposedly confirms and nothing, not even the absence of warming, can falsify.




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SPECIAL REPORT # 1:



CLIMATE SCIENTISTS CONTRADICTED SPIRIT OF OPENESS
BY REJECTING INFORMATION REQUESTS

Hacked emails reveal systematic attempts to block requests
from sceptics and deep frustration at anti-global warming agenda

Fred Pearce - GUARDIAN.co.uk, Tuesday 9 February 2010 14.00 GMT


In a unique experiment, The Guardian has published online the full manuscript of its major investigation into the climate science emails stolen from the University of East Anglia, which revealed apparent attempts to cover up flawed data; moves to prevent access to climate data; and to keep research from climate sceptics out of the scientific literature.

As well as including new information about the emails, we will allow web users to annotate the manuscript to help us in our aim of creating the definitive account of the controversy. This is an attempt at a collaborative route to getting at the truth.

We hope to approach that complete account by harnessing the expertise of people with a special knowledge of, or information about, the emails. We would like the protagonists on all sides of the debate to be involved, as well as people with expertise about the events and the science being described or more generally about the ethics of science. The only conditions are the comments abide by our community guidelines and add to the total knowledge or understanding of the events.

The annotations - and the real name of the commenter - will be added to the manuscript, initially in private. The most insightful comments will then be added to a public version of the manuscript. We hope the process will be a form of peer review. If you have a contribution to make, please email climate.emails@guardian.co.uk.

The anonymous commenting facility under each article will also be switched on so that anyone can contribute to the debate.


Few scientists realised that freedom of information laws being introduced in Britain, the US and elsewhere would impinge strongly on their work. But one who did was Dr Phil Jones, the man at the centre of the fallout from the emails stolen from the University of East Anglia. Thanks to his brushes with climate sceptics, he knew that the laws would put new powers in their hands.

The emails reveal repeated and systematic attempts by him and his colleagues to block FoI requests from climate sceptics who wanted access to emails, documents and data. These moves were not only contrary to the spirit of scientific openness, but according to the government body that administers the FoI legislation were "not dealt with as they should have been under the legislation".

But the emails also reveal deep and understandable frustration among the scientists at the huge amount of time and energy they were being asked to give up to deal with the requests. This was particularly galling as the sceptics making the requests were, in the scientists' eyes, more interested in picking holes in their analyses to suit an anti-global warming agenda than advancing human knowledge.

Jones foresaw that his arch-inquisitor, the Canadian former minerals prospector and editor of the sceptic blog Climate Audit, Steve McIntyre, would be a thorn in his side. As long ago as 2005, before the incoming legislation had been tested in Britain, Jones was laying out his uncompromising views on protecting "his" data. In a note to the prominent US climate scientist Michael Mann in February that year, he noted that "the two MMs", McIntyre and his co-author the Canadian environmental economist Ross McKitrick, "have been after the CRU station data for years. If they ever hear there is a Freedom of Information Act now in the UK, I think I'll delete the file rather than send to anyone."

Later, in 2007, Jones told his Chinese-American colleague Wei-Chyung Wang and Thomas Karl, director of the US government's National Climate Data Centre: "Think I've managed to persuade UEA to ignore all further FoI requests if the people have anything to do with Climate Audit." In December 2008 he wrote in an email to Ben Santer at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California: "When the FoI requests began here, the FoI person said we had to abide by the requests. It took a couple of half-hour sessions - one at a screen - to convince them otherwise, showing them what CA [Climate Audit, McIntyre's website] was all about. Once they became aware of the type of people we were dealing with, everyone at UEA - became very supportive."

By and large, the records show, these requests were turned down. Of 105 requests concerning the Climatic Research Unit up to December 2009, the university refused 77, accepted six in part, had 11 outstanding, and had only 10 released in full. One was withdrawn.

In May 2008 CRU received an FoI request from David Holland, an electrical engineer from Northampton, for all emails sent and received by its tree-ring specialist, Keith Briffa, relating to the IPCC fourth assessment of climate science (AR4) published the year before. The IPCC archives its formal review exchanges and puts that material online but Holland wanted to see emails between scientists about IPCC text conducted outside that process. Subsequent CRU emails discussed ways of avoiding complying with the request.

They decided some emails had not come via IPCC and could be ignored as outside the terms of the request, for instance. Jones noted: "If only Holland knew how the process really worked!!"

By 2008 the scientists had become used to dealing with, and usually rebuffing, requests for data. But this demand for their emails heightened their alarm. Days after receiving the request, Jones sent one of the most damaging emails to emerge from the leak. He asked Mann: "Can you delete any emails you may have had with Keith [Briffa] re AR4? Keith will do likewise. Can you also email Gene [Eugene Wahl, a paleoclimatologist at the National Centre for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado] and get him to do the same - we will be getting Caspar [Ammann also from NCAR] to do the same."

This seems to have been the email that persuaded the UK's Information Commissioner's Office (ICO) - the body that administers the FoI act - its handling of requests was not correct. The deputy information commissioner, Graham Smith, put out a statement last week which said: "The emails which are now public reveal that Mr Holland's requests under the Freedom of Information Act were not dealt with as they should have been under the legislation. Section 77 of the Freedom of Information Act makes it an offence for public authorities to act so as to prevent intentionally the disclosure of requested information." He said the ICO could not take action over the apparent breach because it occurred more than six months ago.

There was more in a similar vein. That month Jones also wrote to Bradley, saying: "You can delete this attachment [probably Holland's FoI request] if you want. Keep this quiet also but this is the person who is putting FoI requests for all emails Keith and Tim have written and received re Ch 6 of AR4. We think we've found a way around this."

The emailers took the view that, whatever the status of data, personal emails were sacrosanct. As Briffa told Ammann a month later: "Our private inter-collegial discussion is just that - PRIVATE - submitting to these demands undermines the wider scientific expectation of personal confidentiality - none of us should submit to these requests."

Holland says the emails reveal "a deliberate attempt to destroy info which has been properly requested".

One device for withholding the IPCC emails, revealed in the leaked emails, was to say that IPCC documents were not covered by British law. The University of East Anglia now says that no emails were deleted after this exchange. But seven months later, in December 2008, Jones revealed in an email to Santer discussing McIntyre: "If he pays 10 Pounds (which he hasn't yet) I am supposed to go through my emails and he can get anything I've written about him. About two months ago I deleted loads of emails, so have very little - if anything at all."

Mass deletion

It is not clear that this mass deletion (if indeed it happened) was done to avoid FoI requests. Jones has been quoted elsewhere as saying: "We haven't deleted any emails. I delete my own personal emails a year at a time regardless of subject as I have too many, but the university still has the emails." Indeed so, as it transpired.

In any case, the ICO apparently advised UEA that some requests for information did not have to be granted. Jones wrote to the Nasa climatologist Gavin Schmidt in August 2008: "All our FoI officers have been in discussions and are now using the same exceptions not to respond - advice they got from the information commissioner."

During 2008 the debate among the emailers grew about coping with the rising tide of FoI requests. Most saw them as a threat to their work - not because they would uncover fraud, but because they took up their time.

Schmidt, one of the hosts of the RealClimate website, wrote consolingly to Santer in December 2008 about dealing with McIntyre: "There are two very different things going on here. One is technical and related to the actual science - the second is political. The second is the issue here - whatever you say, it will still be presented as you hiding data. The contrarians have found that there is actually no limit to what they can ask people for (raw data, intermediate steps, additional calculations, residuals, sensitivity calculations, all the code, a workable version of the code on any platform etc) and like Somali pirates they have found that once someone has paid up, they can always shake them down again."

Others wanted to give some ground. The Stanford University climatologist Dr Stephen Schneider, who runs the journal Climate Change, wrote a round-robin to scientists in January 2009 in which he agreed that "this continuing pattern of harassment - in the name of due diligence is in my view an attempt to create a fishing expedition to find minor glitches or unexplained bits of code - which exist in nearly all our kinds of complex work - and then assert that the entire result is thus suspect."

But Schneider argued that researchers should give enough data and information on their sources and methods so that those "who are scientifically capable can do their own brand of replication work, but that does not extend to personal computer codes with all their undocumented sub-routines etc."

Even so, he felt "it would be odious requirement [sic] to have scientists document every line of [computer] code so outsiders could just apply them instantly. Not only is this an intellectual property issue, but it would dramatically reduce our productivity since we are not in the business of producing software products for general consumption and have no resources to do so." Presciently, he added: "Good luck with this, and expect more of it as we get closer to international climate policy actions. We are witnessing the 'contrarian battle of the bulge' now and expect that all weapons will be used."

Nightmare prospect

In retrospect, it was clear that things were coming to a head by 2009. Freedom of information requests were piling up. The scientists were increasingly angered at how long it was taking to fend them off. Let alone what they regarded as the nightmare prospect of having to deliver the data being requested. And, no doubt, the further scientific questions that would arise once the sceptics dug their teeth into the data. As the scientists resisted, anger grew among their critics.

At the end of August 2009, an amateur sceptic called Rupert Wyndham spotted that earlier in the year Jones had been made a fellow of the American Geophysical Union, which published many of his papers. He assembled an international group of sceptics from 10 countries and wrote to the AGU's top atmospheric scientist, Alan Robock, to complain. He accused Jones of a range of data crimes. "Honouring a man who consistently breaches the fundamental protocols of scientific method casts a stain on the reputation of the AGU," they wrote. Signatories included Sonja Boehmer-Christiansen, editor of Energy and Environment, Jones's least favourite journal, and Martin Durkin, the British TV producer notorious for his programme The Great Global Warming Swindle.

Meanwhile stories began to circulate outside the university about how CRU was resisting legitimate requests from McIntyre. In early July 2009, when I asked Jones about this, he told me: "McIntyre has no interest in deriving his own global temperature series. He just wants to pick holes in those who do. He wants not only the original station data, but details of all the adjustments we have made over the years. It's just time-wasting." But Jones didn't know what was about to hit him.

The day after the rejection of his demand for the station data, McIntyre announced that a "mole" had sent him a full set of the station data. He published some, from Lund in Sweden between 1753 and 1773 - "sensitive information indeed", he noted on his Climate Audit blog. The following day he claimed on the blog that the mole had been identified. Later McIntyre admitted there was no mole and he had simply found the material. According to a subsequent article in Nature, McIntyre had stumbled on "ftp" files containing station data that was intended to be shared only by CRU's partners at the Met Office. CRU immediately removed the data from its website, leading to charges from McIntyre that they were engaged in a "purge".

Meanwhile, according to Nature's climate blogger Olive Heffernan, "between 24 and 29 July, CRU received 58 FoI requests from McIntyre and people affiliated with Climate Audit - the Met Office, which receives a cleaned-up version of the raw data from CRU, has received 10 requests of its own."

With the threat of a "mole" in their midst, climate scientists outside CRU grew wary that their correspondence was not as secure as they might like. In September 2009 Jonathan Overpeck of Arizona University warned colleagues in an email: "Please write all emails as though they will be made public."

In early July McIntyre appealed against being refused the station data, but was turned down by the university's director of information services, Jonathan Colam-French, in a letter dated 13 November, that McIntyre says he received on the 18th.

McIntyre says the timing may be significant here. The first attempt to put online the file containing the CRU emails happened on the morning of Tuesday the 17th. It contained emails up to the 12th. McIntyre says he believes this shows the leak was probably an "inside job" by an aggrieved employee or student angry about the secrecy over CRU's data.

Whoever carried out the hack, there is an irony for Jones and UEA buried in Jones's 2005 correspondence with Mann over the potential for a FoI Act in which he flagged up what a useful tool it would be for the sceptics. Advising Mann on how to avoid a security breach involving sensitive data that was left unprotected on an ftp (file transfer protocol) server, Jones wrote: "Don't leave stuff lying around on ftp sites - you never know who is trawling them."



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SPECIAL REPORT # 2:



SCIENTISTS TAKING STEPS TO DEFEND WORK ON CLIMATE

By John M. Broder - NEW YORK TIMES - Published: March 2, 2010


WASHINGTON - For months, climate scientists have taken a vicious beating in the media and on the Internet, accused of hiding data, covering up errors and suppressing alternate views. Their response until now has been largely to assert the legitimacy of the vast body of climate science and to mock their critics as cranks and know-nothings.

But the volume of criticism and the depth of doubt have only grown, and many scientists now realize they are facing a crisis of public confidence and have to fight back. Tentatively and grudgingly, they are beginning to engage their critics, admit mistakes, open up their data and reshape the way they conduct their work.

The unauthorized release last fall of hundreds of e-mail messages from a major climate research center in England, and more recent revelations of a handful of errors in a supposedly authoritative United Nations report on climate change, have created what a number of top scientists say is a major breach of faith in their research. They say the uproar threatens to undermine decades of work and has badly damaged public trust in the scientific enterprise.

The e-mail episode, dubbed "climategate" by critics, revealed arrogance and what one top climate researcher called "tribalism" among some scientists. The correspondence appears to show efforts to limit publication of contrary opinion and to evade Freedom of Information Act requests. The content of the messages opened some well-known scientists to charges of concealing temperature data from rival researchers and manipulating results to conform to precooked onclusions.

"I have obviously written some very awful e-mails," Phil Jones, the British climate scientist at the center of the controversy, confessed to a special committee of Parliament on Monday. But he sharply disputed charges that he had hidden data or faked results.

Some of the most serious allegations against Dr. Jones, director of the climate research unit at the University of East Anglia, and other researchers have been debunked, while several investigations are still under way to determine whether others hold up.

But serious damage has already been done. A survey conducted in late December by Yale University and George Mason University found that the number of Americans who believed that climate change was a hoax or scientific conspiracy had more than doubled since 2008, to 16 percent of the population from 7 percent. An additional 13 percent of Americans said they thought that even if the planet was warming, it was a result solely of natural factors and was not a significant concern.

Climate scientists have been shaken by the criticism and are beginning to look for ways to recover their reputation. They are learning a little humility and trying to make sure they avoid crossing a line into policy advocacy.

"It's clear that the climate science community was just not prepared for the scale and ferocity of the attacks and they simply have not responded swiftly and appropriately," said Peter C. Frumhoff, an ecologist and chief scientist at the Union of Concerned Scientists. "We need to acknowledge the errors and help turn attention from what's happening in the blogosphere to what's happening in the atmosphere."

A number of institutions are beginning efforts to improve the quality of their science and to make their work more transparent. The official British climate agency is undertaking a complete review of its temperature data and will make its records and analysis fully public for the first time, allowing outside scrutiny of methods and conclusions. The United Nations panel on climate change will accept external oversight of its research practices, also for the first time.

Two universities are investigating the work of top climate scientists to determine whether they have violated academic standards and undermined faith in science. The National Academy of Sciences is preparing to publish a nontechnical paper outlining what is known - and not known - about changes to the global climate. And a vigorous debate is under way among climate scientists on how to make their work more transparent and regain public confidence.

Some critics think these are merely cosmetic efforts that do not address the real problem, however.

"I'll let you in on a very dark, ugly secret - I don't want trust in climate science to be restored," Willis Eschenbach, an engineer and climate contrarian who posts frequently on climate skeptic blogs, wrote in response to one climate scientist's proposal to share more research. "I don't want you learning better ways to propagandize for shoddy science. I don't want you to figure out how to inspire trust by camouflaging your unethical practices in new and innovative ways."

"The solution," he concluded, "is for you to stop trying to pass off garbage as science."

Ralph J. Cicerone, president of the National Academy of Sciences, the most prestigious scientific body in the United States, said that there was a danger that the distrust of climate science could mushroom into doubts about scientific inquiry more broadly. He said that scientists must do a better job of policing themselves and trying to be heard over the loudest voices on cable news, talk radio and the Internet.

"This is a pursuit that scientists have not had much experience in," said Dr. Cicerone, a specialist in atmospheric chemistry.

The battle is asymmetric, in the sense that scientists feel compelled to support their findings with careful observation and replicable analysis, while their critics are free to make sweeping statements condemning their work as fraudulent.

"We have to do a better job of explaining that there is always more to learn, always uncertainties to be addressed," said John P. Holdren, an environmental scientist and the White House science adviser. "But we also need to remind people that the occasions where a large consensus is overturned by a scientific heretic are very, very rare."

No scientific body is under more hostile scrutiny than the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which compiles the climate research of hundreds of scientists around the globe into periodic reports intended to be the definitive statement of the science and a guide for policy makers. Critics, citing several relatively minor errors in its most recent report and charges of conflict of interest against its leader, Rajendra K. Pachauri, are calling for the I.P.C.C. to be disbanded or radically reformed.

On Saturday, after weeks of refusing to engage critics, the I.P.C.C. announced that it was asking for the creation of an independent panel to review its research procedures to try to eliminate bias and errors from future reports. But even while allowing for some external oversight, Dr. Pachauri insisted that panel stood behind its previous work.

"Scientists must continually earn the public's trust or we risk descending into a new Dark Age where ideology trumps reason," Dr. Pachauri said in an e-mail message.

But some scientists said that responding to climate change skeptics was a fool's errand.

"Climate scientists are paid to do climate science," said Gavin A. Schmidt, a senior climatologist with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Institute of Space Studies. "Their job is not persuading the public."

He said that the recent flurry of hostility to climate science had been driven as much by the cold winter as by any real or perceived scientific sins.

"There have always been people accusing us of being fraudulent criminals, of the I.P.C.C. being corrupt," Dr. Schmidt said. "What is new is this paranoia combined with a spell of cold weather in the United States and the climategate' release. It's a perfect storm that has allowed the nutters to control the agenda."

The answer is simple, he said. "Good science," he said, "is the best revenge."

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SPECIAL REPORT # 3:



GLOBAL WARMING "SCIENTIST-ADVOCATES" ON THE RETREAT:
RETRACT MULTIPLE ERROR-PLAGUED UNSCIENTIFIC CLAIMS
UNDER GROWING PRESSURE FROM MORE CORNERS


IPCC OFFICIALS ADMIT MISTAKE OVER
MELTING HIMALAYAN GLACIERS

Senior members of the UN's climate science body admit a claim
that Himalayan glaciers could melt away by 2035 was unfounded

Damian Carrington - GUARDIAN.co.uk, Wednesday 20 January 2010 14.26 GMT


The UN's climate science body has admitted that a claim made in its 2007 report - that Himalayan glaciers could melt away by 2035 - was unfounded.

The admission today followed a New Scientist article last week that revealed the source of the claim made in the 2007 report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was not peer-reviewed scientific literature - but a media interview with a scientist conducted in 1999. Several senior scientists have now said the claim was unrealistic and that the large Himalayan glaciers could not melt in a few decades.

In a statement (pdf), the IPCC said the paragraph "refers to poorly substantiated estimates of rate of recession and date for the disappearance of Himalayan glaciers. In drafting the paragraph in question, the clear and well-established standards of evidence, required by the IPCC procedures, were not applied properly."

It added: "The IPCC regrets the poor application of well-established IPCC procedures in this instance." But the statement calls for no action beyond stating a need for absolute adherence to IPCC quality control processes. "We reaffirm our strong commitment to ensuring this level of performance," the statement said.

The IPCC says the broader conclusion of the report is unaffected: that glaciers have melted significantly, that this will accelerate and affect the supply of water from major mountain ranges "where more than one-sixth of the world population currently lives".

Jean-Pascal van Ypersele, vice-chair of the IPCC, added that the mistake did nothing to undermine the large body of evidence that showed the climate was warming and that human activity was largely to blame. He told BBC News: "I don't see how one mistake in a 3,000-page report can damage the credibility of the overall report. "

The Indian environment minister, Jairam Ramesh, said earlier in the week: "The [glaciers] are indeed receding and the rate is cause for great concern [but the claim is] not based on an iota of scientific evidence."

The Indian government criticised the IPCC's glaciers claim in November at the launch of its own discussion paper, written by geologist Vijay Kumar Raina, which admitted that while some glaciers in the Himalayas were retreating, it was "nothing out of the ordinary. Nothing to suggest as some have said that they will disappear."

At the time, the chairman of the IPCC, Rajendra Pachauri, dismissed the report as not peer-reviewed and said: "With the greatest of respect this guy retired years ago and I find it totally baffling that he comes out and throws out everything that has been established years ago."

Georg Kaser, an expert in tropical glaciology at the University of Innsbruck in Austria and a lead author for the IPCC, said he had warned that the 2035 prediction was clearly wrong in 2006, months before the report was published. "This [date] is not just a little bit wrong, but far out of any order of magnitude," he said.

"All the responsible people are aware of this weakness in the fourth assessment. All are aware of the mistakes made," he said. "If it had not been the focus of so much public opinion, we would have said 'we will do better next time'. It is clear now that working group II has to be restructured."

The reports of the IPCC collate the work of thousands of scientists and are assessed through a process of peer-review and then approved by the 192 governments who are members of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Its work is seen as the most comprehensive account of global warming.

The chair of the IPCC, Rajendra Pachauri, has made no personal comment on the glacier claim: But yesterday, at an energy conference in Abu Dhabi, he responded to British newspaper articles criticising his chairmanship of the IPCC. "They can't attack the science so they attack the chairman. But they won't sink me. I am the unsinkable Molly Brown. In fact, I will float much higher," he told the Guardian.

The row centres on the IPCC's "fourth assessment" report in 2007, which said "glaciers in the Himalayas are receding faster than in any other part of the world and, if the present rate continues, the likelihood of them disappearing by the year 2035 and perhaps sooner is very high if the Earth keeps warming at the current rate." The claim appears in the full report, but not in the more widely read "Summary for policymakers".

The claim was attributed to a report by the campaign group WWF, but in the New Scientist article, Guardian writer Fred Pearce noted that WWF had cited a 1999 interview in the magazine with Indian glaciologist Syed Hasnain as the source of the claim. Hasnain told the magazine last week that "it is not proper for IPCC to include references from popular magazines or newspapers".



U.N. CLIMATE PANEL ADMITS DUTCH SEA LEVEL FLAW

REUTERS - Sat Feb 13, 2010 12:09pm EST


OSLO - The U.N. panel of climate experts overstated how much of the Netherlands is below sea level, according to a preliminary report on Saturday, admitting yet another flaw after a row last month over Himalayan glacier melt.

A background note by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) said a 2007 report wrongly stated that 55 percent of the country was below sea level since the figure included areas above sea level, prone to flooding along rivers.

The United Nations has said errors in the 2007 report of about 3,000 pages do not affect the core conclusions that human activities, led by burning fossil fuels, are warming the globe.

"The sea level statistic was used for background information only, and the updated information remains consistent with the overall conclusions," the IPCC note dated February 12 said.

Skeptics say errors have exposed sloppiness and over-reliance on "grey literature" outside leading scientific journals. The panel's reports are a main guide for governments seeking to work out costly policies to combat global warming.

The 2007 report included the sentence: "The Netherlands is an example of a country highly susceptible to both sea level rise and river flooding because 55 percent of its territory is below sea level."

"A preliminary analysis suggests that the sentence discussed should end with: 'because 55 percent of the Netherlands is at risk of flooding'," the IPCC note said.

The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, the original source of the incorrect data, said on February 5 that just 26 percent of the country is below sea level and 29 percent susceptible to river flooding.

The IPCC said the error was widespread -- it quoted a report from the Dutch Ministry of Transport saying "about 60 percent" of the country is below sea level, and a European Commission study saying "about half."

The panel expressed regret last month after admitting that the 2007 report exaggerated the pace of melt of the Himalayan glaciers, which feed rivers from China to India in dry seasons, in a sentence that said they could all vanish by 2035.

The 2035 figure did not come from a scientific journal.



CLIMATE SCIENTISTS WITHDRAW JOURNAL
CLAIMS OF RISING SEA LEVELS

Study claimed in 2009 that sea levels would rise by up to 82cm by the end of century
- but the report's author now says true estimate is still unknown

David Adam - GUARDIAN.co.uk, Sunday 21 February 2010 18.00 GMT


Scientists have been forced to withdraw a study on projected sea level rise due to global warming after finding mistakes that undermined the findings.

The study, published in 2009 in Nature Geoscience, one of the top journals in its field, confirmed the conclusions of the 2007 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It used data over the last 22,000 years to predict that sea level would rise by between 7cm and 82cm by the end of the century.

At the time, Mark Siddall, from the Earth Sciences Department at the University of Bristol, said the study "strengthens the confidence with which one may interpret the IPCC results". The IPCC said that sea level would probably rise by 18cm-59cm by 2100, though stressed this was based on incomplete information about ice sheet melting and that the true rise could be higher.

Many scientists criticised the IPCC approach as too conservative, and several papers since have suggested that sea level could rise more. Martin Vermeer of the Helsinki University of Technology, Finland and Stefan Rahmstorf of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research in Germany published a study in December that projected a rise of 0.75m to 1.9m by 2100.

Siddall said that he did not know whether the retracted paper's estimate of sea level rise was an overestimate or an underestimate.

Announcing the formal retraction of the paper from the journal, Siddall said: "It's one of those things that happens. People make mistakes and mistakes happen in science."

He said there were two separate technical mistakes in the paper, which were pointed out by other scientists after it was published. A formal retraction was required, rather than a correction, because the errors undermined the study's conclusion.

"Retraction is a regular part of the publication process," he said. "Science is a complicated game and there are set procedures in place that act as checks and balances."

Nature Publishing Group, which publishes Nature Geoscience, said this was the first paper retracted from the journal since it was launched in 2007.

The paper - entitled "Constraints on future sea-level rise from past sea-level change" - used fossil coral data and temperature records derived from ice-core measurements to reconstruct how sea level has fluctuated with temperature since the peak of the last ice age, and to project how it would rise with warming over the next few decades.

In a statement the authors of the paper said: "Since publication of our paper we have become aware of two mistakes which impact the detailed estimation of future sea level rise. This means that we can no longer draw firm conclusions regarding 21st century sea level rise from this study without further work.

"One mistake was a miscalculation; the other was not to allow fully for temperature change over the past 2,000 years. Because of these issues we have retracted the paper and will now invest in the further work needed to correct these mistakes."

In the Nature Geoscience retraction, in which Siddall and his colleagues explain their errors, Vermeer and Rahmstorf are thanked for "bringing these issues to our attention".



RETURN TO MAIN EXPRESS OVERVIEW


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SPECIAL REPORT # 4:



NORTHERN HEMISPHERE'S WINTER OF 2009-2010
BREAKS RECORDS FOR COLD AND SNOW MOST EVERYWHERE,
INCLUDING WASHINGTON, DC - BALTIMORE CORRIDOR


BRITON PULLED ALIVE FROM SWISS AVALANCHE
AS RECORD FREEZING WEATHER GRIPS EUROPE,
NORTH AMERICA ANN ASIA

By Daily Mail Reporter - Last updated at 4:23 PM on 04th January 2010


When Britain woke up on the first day of the year it was met with freezing temperatures, snow and the promise of travel chaos.

And now, three days into 2010, forecasters have warned the country to expect continued snowfall for the next ten days - bringing with it added stress for commuters heading back to work after the festive break and children returning to school.

Yet Britain is not along in struggling to cope with the difficult weather conditions.

SWISS ALPS Britons were among hundreds of skiers at Diemtig Valley, about 25 miles south of the capital Bern, when the first massive snowslide was triggered on Sunday.

As an Alpine search team arrived to free one man buried under tons of snow, a second avalanche hit the slope 20 minutes later burying several rescuers and more skiers.

A second team from the Swiss Air Rescue Service then raced to the scene at the 8,000 ft off-piste Drumannler peak to begin the hunt for survivors. One person was found dead at the scene, while three more died later in hospital, including one rescue service doctor.

Five others were injured, and three more are still missing in what police said was one of the worst avalanche disasters in Switzerland for ten years. One of those pulled alive from the snow is said to be a Briton, who has not yet been named.

Bernhard Scherz, an official with the Rubigen ski club who took part in the rescue, told Swiss website 20 Minuten Online that one of those recovered alive from the avalanche was an Englishman. The names and nationalities of the deceased have also not yet been released.

The search was called off at 6pm on Sunday and resumed today amid fears of more avalanches at the resort in the Bernese Alps.

A rescue service spokesman said: 'We fear that anyone not yet found will not have survived buried under the snow.

'We will continue our search until all victims have been found.'

The Swiss Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research said the avalanche risk in the area was 'moderate' at the time. Avalanche forecaster Christine Pielmeier said today the danger level had been raised to 'considerable' because further heavy snowfall was expected.

Swiss Alpine Club avalanche expert Ueli Mosimann blamed the disaster on warm weather in the region last week followed by 20cm of fresh snow that did not have time to bond with the lower layer. An average of 20 people a year die in avalanches in Switzerland.

The Swiss Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research said those venturing off-piste should take shovels and transceivers so they can be located by rescuers.

Separately, two skiers were buried in another avalanche near the town of Verbier close to the border with France and Italy. One person was killed while his guide was rescued alive, police in the southern canton of Valais said.

The start of the ski season and heavy snowfall in recent days have prompted officials to warn of a heightened avalanche risk in the Swiss Alps.

AMERICA

Freezing weather gripped large parts of the U.S. early this morning - with no relief in sight for the rest of the week.

Wind chill took the temperatures in Minneapolis, Minnesota, down to -17C.

While the upper Midwest is used to frigid weather, the sunshine state Florida is also suffering freezing temperatures.

The Panhandle and much of northern Florida is under a hard freeze warning, the National Weather Service says. The warning extended almost down to Tampa along the Gulf Coast.

Florida officials have been urging residents, visitors and farmers to prepare for temperatures near or below thefreezing mark this week.

Along with the dangerously cold temperatures, residents in Montana are braced for blizzard conditions with snowfall of 12 to 20 inches possible across parts of the state.

In Chicago, residents bundled up on another bitterly cold day.

Despite the dangerous cold, some people ventured out - especially parishioners at Holy Name Cathedral.

'It's God first. Even though weather is terrible, we've still got to go to church,' Alez Alverez told CNN.

In the Northeast, the Weather Service warned that a large storm off the New England coast would continue to bring heavy snow to much of central New York state.

CHINA

Snow storms today have caused chaos in China's capital of Beijing, bringing aeroplanes to a halt and causing severe traffic delays.

Around 90 per cent of all flights were either delayed or cancelled, leaving thousands of passengers stranded.

In addition, major roads in Beijing and Tianjin, as well as nearby provinces Hebei, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia, were forced to close due to the heavy snow.

The snow shows no sign of stopping, however, and temperatures are expected to drop to -16C in Beijing on Monday and Tuesday, causing more problems for those attempting to returning to work after a three-day New Year holiday.

Primary and middle schools in Beijing will be closed tomorrow as people are unable to drive their cars in the heavy snow.

Authorities in Beijing and Tianjin announced today there will be no classes at primary and middle schools tomorrow as the snow had caused traffic chaos.

INDIA

Not a country usually associated with snow, India has experienced severe problems since Saturday when snowfall and a dense blanket of fog began to cause chaos.

More than 30 people died in cold-weather related incidents in Northern India over the past 24 hours, with 10 of those losing their lives in train accidents caused by the fog.

More than 40 people were injured, and 10 killed, in train accidents in India caused by the bad weather.

Meanwhile, 24 homeless people have also died in the Uttar Pradesh state since Saturday due to the severe drop in temperature.

Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir were all hit with heavy snow, while Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana and Delhi also recorded snowfall over the past 24 hours.

Flights from New Delhi were grounded or delayed yesterday because of poor visibility, Shashanka Nanda, a spokesman for the Delhi International Airport Limited said, before adding that conditions had improved today.

RUSSIA

A country much more used to dealing with high levels of snow, Russia saw temperature lows of a chilling -20C in Moscow today.

Those travelling on trains at stations near the Russian city of Vorkuta, attempted to continue their journeys despite the freezing conditions.

Workers also tried to sweep snow from the train tracks, but found it was falling too fast to clear.

However, two men making the most of the snow were Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and Prime Minister Vladimir Putin who decided to take to the slopes in Krasnaya Polyana near the Black Sea resort of Sochi in southern Russia.

The duo donned heavy jackets and goggles as they skiied together, with Putin looking serious as the pair indulged in some seemingly serious political conversations.

GERMANY

The snow caused more problems with flights in Germany, with one jet veering off the runway at Dortmund airport in western Germany.

The Air Berlin Boeing 737-800 broke to abort the take-off due to a 'technical irregularity', but none of the 165 passengers and six crew members were injured.

All passengers and crew were left unharmed after the Air Berlin plane aborted its take-off.

The plane was not damaged but flights from the airport were cancelled or diverted for a large part of the day.

Airline spokeswoman Diane Daedelow said: 'A combination of the snowy weather and the speed the plane was travelling at forced the plane to skid off the runway.'

Over 30 flights from Frankfurt airport were also cancelled this morning.

AUSTRIA

While they are much more accustomed to dealing with snow, even native Austrians were struggling to cope with the freezing lows of -8C at night and -3C during the day.

But one creature happy to bound around in the fluffy snow was a mix breed dog called Lotta, who seemed entirely unconcerned as she became coated in snow during her run in Unken, in the Austrian province of Salzburg.

Meteorologists have predicted continued light snowfalls for the upcoming days in Austria.



AMTRAK "TRAIN FROM HELL" DELAYED ALMOST 24 HOURS

"The snow drifts were more than two stories tall," said an Amtrak spokesman

By Charlie Wojciechowski - updated 3:02 PM CST, Fri, Jan 8, 2010


It was "the train from hell," said one passenger.

Arriving almost 24 hours behind schedule, Amtrak's California Zephyr arrived in Chicago with a trainload of passengers who described themselves as "tired, hungry and stinky."

The train, which left Sacramento five days ago, was delayed by severe weather and numerous mishaps on route and pulled into Union Station more than 19 hours late.

One delay was caused by the train striking a pickup truck in Iowa. But the biggest problem, the rail carrier says, was the weather. "There is a pass in Nebraska between two hills, " spokesman Marc Magliari says, "where the snow drifts were more than two stories tall."

"I'm Sweaty, I'm Tired, I Want My Money Back!"

Some passengers complained about a short supply of food and water on board, others criticized the crew for not keeping them informed.

Most say they will never take Amtrak again.

Amtrak says it will pay hotel rooms for passengers who need them. It will also offer refunds on a case by case basis. Because of the weather, the rail carrier is suspending service past Minneapolis today. Trains between Chicago and Denver have also been suspended until tracks can be cleared.

In a similar incident, an Amtrak train bound from Denver arrived 23 hours late. A third train which runs from San Antonio to Chicago derailed in St. Louis yesterday, temporarily stranding 176 passengers and a crew of nine.



EUROPE, IN GRIP OF LOW TEMPERATURES,
FACES FLARING TEMPERS AND DISRUPTED TRAVEL

By Nicholas Kulish and Scott Sayare - NYT- Published: January 11, 2010


BERLIN - Weeks of wintry weather have left Britons bickering over dwindling salt supplies, Germans worrying over the economic costs of a ferocious start to winter, and residents in the usually warmer corners like Spain and the south of France struggling with rare accumulations of snow.

And everywhere travelers bore the brunt of the cold snap caused by the low-pressure system known as Daisy, which has brought a deep chill to the Continent and disrupted roads, rails and runways.

In Grenoble, France, there was almost a foot of snow on the streets. "The last time it happened was in 1990," said Frédéric Nathan of the national weather forecaster Météo-France. "Such level of snow in southeast of France is rather rare."

In Spain, the army was called in to clear roads in crucial areas around Madrid, and 100 smaller roads were closed in the surrounding region.

In southern Poland, more than 100,000 homes were without power on Monday. Also in the country, the train from Katowice to the port city of Gdynia, which was supposed to arrive just after 6 p.m. Sunday, arrived Monday after 11 a.m.

Patience was running particularly thin in Britain, where Met Office, the national weather service, declared last month the coldest December in 14 years, and January brought more of the same. The shortage of salt or "grit" for slippery roads and walkways turned into a political issue, with the government forced to defend itself in the face of criticism from the opposition Conservative Party that it was not prepared for the winter.

The Web site of the newspaper The Independent quoted the shadow local government secretary, Caroline Spelman, calling it an "utter failure" that "Labour ministers have sat on their hands instead of putting measures in place to safeguard grit supplies."

"Families will continue to suffer from the government's incompetence," Ms. Spelman said.

Efforts to manage the snow and ice in France also have been impeded by problems with the distribution of de-icing salt. With demand at a record, suppliers have been unable to ship the salt fast enough to replenish stocks in regions unaccustomed to winter conditions, said Patrick-Jean Viverge, a spokesman for Compagnie des Salins du Midi et des Salines de l'Est, France's largest de-icing salt supplier.

The weather has wreaked havoc on French roads and railways since late December. On Dec. 18, several Eurostar trains traveling between Paris and London stalled in the tunnel under the English Channel, disrupting traffic for nearly a week and stranding thousands of travelers in England and France. Eurostar has reduced its traffic by as much as 50 percent in recent weeks, and it is currently allowing only one train in the tunnel at a time.

France's state-owned rail operator, S.N.C.F., has in recent weeks replaced at least 400 train windows, many damaged by flying ice shards loosened by the air currents created as trains pass each other at high speeds.

The brunt of the storm that hit Germany over the weekend was borne by the northern part of the country and particularly by the coastal regions. On the Baltic island of Fehmarn, nearly 16 inches of snow fell, but snowdrifts were close to 12 feet in parts of the island, according to its mayor, Otto-Uwe Schmiedt.

Volker Treier, chief economist at the German Chambers of Industry and Commerce, told the newspaper Bild on Monday that unless weather patterns changed drastically, the frigid start to the year would cost nearly $3 billion, mostly because of the idling of the construction sector and the resulting delay in orders for furnishings and appliances.

Mr. Treier defended the projection against charges that the cold snap and snow over the weekend were serious but hardly unusual for a North German winter. Mr. Treier called his projection "relatively conservative," once transportation problems and rising oil prices were taken into account, but that could change if the winds shifted and things warmed up.

Nicholas Kulish reported from Berlin, and Scott Sayare from Paris. Gaia Pianigiani and Elisabetta Povoledo contributed reporting from Rome, and Maia de la Baume from Paris.



HISTORIC SNOWSTORM PARALYZES REGION

By: Bill Myers and David Sherfinski - WASHINGTON EXAMINER February 6, 2010


The D.C. area faced a gigantic digging out project Sunday after an historic storm dumped upwards of two feet of snow on the region, leaving many without power and stranded indoors along unplowed streets.

"This is a major event," said Bob Hainey, a spokesman for Pepco. "We're going to keeping hitting it." More than 160,000 people were without power in the Washington area, officials reported.

Montgomery County roads officials said that they may not be able to dig out neighborhoods until Wednesday. The Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) was also working overtime to keep up.

"These are extreme, extreme conditions, and we cannot stress enough that folks need to stay off of the roads until the weather ends," said VDOT spokeswoman Jennifer Smith McCord. "We have more than 1,800 trucks - our entire fleet in northern Virginia - working 12-hour shifts around the clock to keep up with the snow."

Totals varied widely across the region, and the combination of heavy, wet snow and biting winds left transportation services reeling. All Saturday flights at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and most at Washington Dulles International Airport were cancelled. Metro cancelled all buses and stopped serving above-ground stations late Friday night. Amtrak was sending crews home, and postal service in the D.C. area was halted.

The federal government will decide whether there will be work Monday sometime before the Super Bowl, said John Berry, spokesman for the Office of Personnel Management.

At Union Station, London native John Owen was watching the departures screen nervously. He was hoping to catch a play in New York with his daughter. He had already relied on the kindness of strangers just to get to the station.

"My day started well," he said. "I'm walking around on 18th Street, not a soul in sight. So some guy is driving along in a little four-wheel, taking pictures, and he gives me a lift."

It was nearly impossible to find a sense of direction in some places; the combination of snow and wind had completely covered up several street signs near Dupont Circle.

A fire at Children's Hospital in D.C. forced about three dozen patients from their rooms to refuge in a basement. A pickup truck with a snow plow caused the blaze, catching fire near the building.

Authorities blamed the storm for hundreds of accidents, which included a tractor-trailer wreck that killed a father and son stopping to help someone in Virginia. Some local hospitals were asking people with four-wheel-drive vehicles to volunteer to drive doctors and nurses to work. So grab your shovel - if you can find one.

Roy Ewers, owner of Fischer Ace Hardware in Springfield, Va., said that on Friday his store sold 1,000 shovels - in less than an hour. "It was incredible," he said. "In the 60 years Fischer's been here, we've never seen it like this - just amazing."

Indeed, preparations for the incoming "Snowpocalypse" were epic. Stafford County in Virginia, just south of Prince William County, actually opened up two shelters Friday afternoon to assist people during the storm.

The heavy snow comes about a month and a half after a storm dumped more than 16 inches of the white stuff on Washington. According to the National Weather Service, Washington has gotten more than a foot of snow only 13 times since 1870. It is believed that as much as three feet fell in 1772; George Washington and Thomas Jefferson both chronicled that storm in their diaries, though official records were not kept at the time.

Mother Nature may not be done with D.C. yet - the National Weather Service is reporting that a combination of snow and rain could swoop in on Tuesday.

The Associated Press and Examiner intern Kaitlin Schluter contributed to this report.



"SNOVERKILL" SLAMS EASTERN US

By Stephanie Griffith (AFP) Feb 9, 2010


WASHINGTON - A second major snowstorm in less than a week struck the eastern United States Wednesday, paralyzing travel for millions, shutting down the US capital, and forcing school closures from Virginia to New York.

The National Weather Service forecast that the storm, dubbed "Snoverkill" by the local media, would dump up to 14 inches (36 centimeters) of fresh snow on the mid-Atlantic region.

This comes on top of the three feet (91 cm) of snow from the weekend's powerful blizzard, much of which remains on the ground.

Federal government offices in the US capital closed Wednesday for the third straight day -- a first since 1996 -- while local schools prepared to remain closed until next week.

Even in New York city, Mayor Michael Bloomberg ordered schools closed, only the second time to do so since 2004 according to local media.

The NWS issued a blizzard warning for the Washington-Baltimore area starting at 10 am (1500 GMT) and lasting nine hours and warned of heavy snowfall and winds of 20 to 30 miles per hour (32 to 48 kilometers per hour).

"Blowing and drifting snow will reduce visibility to a quarter of a mile or less at times, producing blizzard conditions," the NWS said in its 0845 GMT advisory.

"This will lead to whiteout conditions, making travel extremely dangerous. Do not travel," the advisory read.

It also issued a rare blizzard warning for New York city, to remain in effect until early Thursday morning.

"The snow may mix with rain and sleet at times" on Wednesday, "but will otherwise be heavy at times during the day."

By late Wednesday the NWS forecast between eight and 13 inches of snow for New York.

Thousands of homes were still without power in the Washington-Baltimore metropolitan area after Friday and Saturday's massive snowfall dubbed "Snowmageddon."

Strong winds expected to accompany the second storm could also mean further power outages across the region.

Snow-weary residents have since scrambled to get a sense of normalcy, digging out, stocking up on depleted groceries and clearing their streets from fallen trees and branches.

But even before the storm hit, many secondary roadways remained treacherous, with piles of snow and near-invisible black ice.

Harried commuters in the mid-Atlantic states struggled to dig out buried cars and trundle to work Tuesday on icy roads, while subway users in the US capital suffered long waits despite the relaunch of suspended above ground services.

But just hours after the first new flurries began to fall, Metro said subway service would be limited to underground only stations until Thursday, while transit officials canceled bus and shuttle service.

Most of the 230,000 federal employees in the Washington DC area were off work, costing an estimated 100 million dollars a day in lost productivity.

Some government offices including the White House, parts of Congress and some agencies however remained operational.

A quarter of Washington DC's snow plows were being repaired after being operated without stop since Friday, CNN reported.

Washington, Virginia and Maryland all declared emergencies, allowing them to mobilize the National Guard to help cope with the unusually severe winter wallop.

No flights were expected to take off from Washington's Reagan National and Dulles International airports on Wednesday, the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority said.

Airlines operating out of New Jersey, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Chicago also reported cancellations and delays.

The government-owned rail corporation Amtrak said it would operate limited service along its money-making Northeast corridor on Wednesday. In addition to snow, the rail service was also battling downed trees and power lines.

Jennifer Ganem, stuck at home in the Maryland suburbs with four children under the age of 10, said her family had been particularly challenged by a weekend power outage that kept them in the dark for almost two days.

Ganem said news of another blast of snow was a real downer, even for her children who usually look forward to sledding and snow days off from school.

"My daughter actually said to me this morning, 'OK, I'm done with winter now,'" she said.

"That's a bad sign when you've got 20 more inches of snow coming."



IT'S HISTORY: WINTER 2009-2010 SNOWIEST ON RECORD

Records set at National, Dulles, and BWI Airports

*** Latest update: Winds, blowing snow still in high gear ***

WASHINGTON POST - Capital Weather Gang - Post updated at 3:15

Reagan National Airport (DCA) reported 1" of snow between 1 and 2 p.m., upping its storm total to 9.8". It has received 54.9" this year, exceeding the 54.4" of 1898-1899.

Keep reading for the full statement from the National Weather Service on the snow record not only DCA but also at Dulles and BWI...

...PRELIMINARY ALL-TIME SEASONAL SNOWFALL RECORDS SET AT THE THREE MAJOR CLIMATE SITES IN THE BALTIMORE-WASHINGTON AREA...

AS OF 2 PM TODAY...WITH THE 9.8 INCH TWO-DAY SNOWFALL TOTAL MEASURED AT RONALD REAGAN WASHINGTON NATIONAL AIRPORT...THE SEASONAL SNOWFALL TOTAL IN WASHINGTON DC STANDS AT 54.9 INCHES. THIS WOULD BREAK THE PREVIOUS ALL-TIME SEASONAL SNOWFALL RECORD FOR WASHINGTON DC OF 54.4 INCHES SET IN THE WINTER OF 1898-99. OFFICIAL SNOWFALL RECORDS FOR WASHINGTON DC DATE BACK 126 YEARS TO 1884.

AS OF 1 PM TODAY...WITH THE 11.9 INCH TWO-DAY SNOWFALL TOTAL MEASURED AT BALTIMORE/WASHINGTON INTERNATIONAL THURGOOD MARSHALL AIRPORT...THE SEASONAL SNOWFALL TOTAL IN BALTIMORE STANDS AT 72.3 INCHES. THIS WOULD BREAK THE PREVIOUS ALL-TIME SEASONAL SNOWFALL RECORD FOR BALTIMORE OF 62.5 INCHES SET IN THE WINTER OF 1995-96. OFFICIAL SNOWFALL RECORDS FOR BALTIMORE DATE BACK 118 YEARS TO 1893.

FINALLY...AS OF YESTERDAY...THIS YEARS SEASONAL SNOWFALL TOTAL AT DULLES INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT STOOD AT 63.5 INCHES. THIS WOULD BREAK THE PREVIOUS SEASONAL SNOWFALL RECORD OF 61.9 INCHES SET IN 1995-96. AS OF 1 PM THIS AFTERNOON...THE TWO-DAY SNOWFALL TOTAL AT DULLES IS 8.5 INCHES...WHICH WOULD MAKE THIS YEARS SEASONAL SNOWFALL TOTAL 72.0 INCHES. OFFICIAL SNOWFALL RECORDS FOR DULLES DATE BACK 48 YEARS TO 1962.

THESE PRELIMINARY STORM TOTALS ARE AS OF THIS WEDNESDAY AFTERNOON 10 FEB 2010...AND WILL BE UPDATED AFTER THE CURRENT SNOW HAS ENDED.

AS WITH ANY MAJOR CLIMATE RECORD ACHIEVEMENT...THESE PRELIMINARY RECORDS WILL BE QUALITY CONTROLLED BY NOAA`S NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA ENTER OVER THE NEXT FEW MONTHS.

By Jason Samenow | February 10, 2010; 3:15 PM ET



RETURN TO MAIN EXPRESS OVERVIEW


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SPECIAL REPORT # 5:



SENATORS TO PROPOSE ABANDONING CAP-AND-TRADE

By Juliet Eilperin & Steven Mufson WASHINGTON POST Saturday, February 27, 2010; A01


Three key senators are engaged in a radical behind-the-scenes overhaul of climate legislation, preparing to jettison the broad "cap-and-trade" approach that has defined the legislative debate for close to a decade.

The sharp change of direction demonstrates the extent to which the cap-and-trade strategy -- allowing facilities to buy and sell pollution credits in order to meet a national limit on greenhouse gas emissions -- has become political poison. In a private meeting with several environmental leaders on Wednesday, according to participants, Sen. Lindsey O. Graham (R-S.C.), declared, "Cap-and-trade is dead."

Graham and Sens. John F. Kerry (D-Mass.) and Joseph I. Lieberman (I-Conn.) have worked for months to develop an alternative to cap-and-trade, which the House approved eight months ago. They plan to introduce legislation next month that would apply different carbon controls to individual sectors of the economy instead of setting a national target.

According to several sources familiar with the process, the lawmakers are looking at cutting the nation's greenhouse gas output by targeting, in separate ways, three major sources of emissions: electric utilities, transportation and industry.

Power plants would face an overall cap on emissions that would become more stringent over time; motor fuel may be subject to a carbon tax whose proceeds could help electrify the U.S. transportation sector; and industrial facilities would be exempted from a cap on emissions for several years before it is phased in. The legislation would also expand domestic oil and gas drilling offshore and would provide federal assistance for constructing nuclear power plants and carbon sequestration and storage projects at coal-fired utilities.

"This is a different bill," Lieberman said in an interview. "We haven't abandoned the market- based idea, but we're willing to negotiate with colleagues who have different ideas."

Many lawmakers and lobbyists say even a radically different climate bill would face big hurdles to passage, given conflicting corporate and consumer interests, regional divides and a crowded Senate calendar. Energy industry lobbyists have turned much of their attention to proposing numerous variations of more narrow energy legislation.

But President Obama has continued to push for broad legislation that he says would make the U.S. economy more efficient, slow climate change and fulfill U.S. pledges in international climate talks in December to cut the country's emissions by 17 percent by 2020. A U.S. failure to fulfill that commitment could undercut the determination of other nations to live up to their pledges.

Opponents of cap-and-trade, including GOP congressional leaders and some energy companies, have portrayed the House-passed bill as an energy tax in disguise that would hurt U.S. consumers and create a financial commodity that could be subject to manipulation. The measure also came under criticism because it gave away a large number of free allowances to coal users.

Environmental advocates, eager to pass comprehensive climate and energy legislation before the November midterm elections, said the shift in strategy represents the best shot at getting something done this year.

"The Senate is understanding this is not a simple problem -- it's multiple problems, and it requires multiple solutions," said Carl Pope, executive director of the Sierra Club.

The change in policy, which might even include giving money raised through carbon pollution allowances directly back to consumers, a scheme known as "cap-and-dividend," could appeal to some wavering senators. Senior Obama administration officials have also been studying the cap-and-dividend approach. But it remains unclear whether that would be enough to produce the 60 votes proponents need, especially when the Senate has yet to finish work on health-care legislation and a jobs package.

Powerful business leaders have their own priorities. Michael Morris, chief executive of American Electric Power, a heavily coal-based utility, said one much-discussed proposal for a cap-and-trade plan limited to utilities was "ridiculous" because it would place an unfair burden on coal-based utilities. He added that "cap-and-dividend would be equally inappropriate." He said it would take money from "mom in the Midwest and dividend it to Paris Hilton."

While Obama has continued to assert the need for any climate bill to raise the price of carbon-based fuels, the American Petroleum Institute has been running television ads during the Winter Olympics saying "Americans say no to raising energy taxes."

Even some moderate Republicans, seen as possible supporters of a new climate bill, remain opposed to the idea of putting a price on carbon, which Lieberman still calls "sine qua non," or an essential ingredient, of any such bill. Andy Fisher, a spokesman for Sen. Richard G. Lugar (R-Ind.), said the senator, who has opposed cap-and-trade and carbon taxes, could support pricing carbon "potentially at some point, but not at the moment."

Senate Majority Leader Harry M. Reid (D-Nev.) told Kerry this week that he and his colleagues need to produce a bill as soon as possible to have any chance of passage in 2010. Jim Manley, Reid's spokesman, said it is the majority leader's "hope to bring it up to the floor for a vote," adding, "But we've got a whole host of other things on our plate, and a Republican Party that's making it difficult for us to pass all but the most routine legislation."

Kerry said that although the package the three senators will unveil will not have 60 votes when it becomes public, he is confident that it will win over skeptical lawmakers.

"What people need to understand about this bill is this really is a jobs bill, an economic transformation for America, an energy independence bill and a health/pollution-reduction bill that has enormous benefits for the country," Kerry said.



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SPECIAL REPORT # 6:



EU CLIMATE CHIEF PESSIMISTIC AFTER US VISIT

Leigh Phillips - EU OBSERVER - March 19, 2010 - 09:26 CET


EU climate commissioner Connie Hedegaard has ended meetings with her various US counterparts dejected by uncertainty as to whether Washington will be able to pass badly-needed climate legislation in time for a summit Mexico.

"It's very, very nervous times. People don't know, will it fly or will it not fly," she told reporters in the American capital on on Thursday (18 March), a day after she had met with climate special envoy Todd Stern, climate and energy 'tsar' Carol Browner, the administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, Lisa Jackson and a clutch of senators and congressmen.

"The feeling that I got yesterday was that, well, not too many want to bet on the timing and what could be the outcome," she said.

US legislation in the climate area has all but stalled, with the Obama administration focused on a debate about healthcare and this year's mid-term elections.

Without Washington able to pass laws to match Mr Obama's international greenhouse gas emission reduction pledges, reaching a binding international deal this year by December's UN climate summit in Cancun, Mexico, will be impossible.

"What we hear coming out of the American discussion, coming out of Beijing, coming out of Delhi, maybe also Mexico, [is that] it would be difficult to get all the details set [for such a deal]," the EU commissioner said.

The US has pledged to reduce its emissions by 17 percent on 2005 levels by 2020. Most other powers however, including the EU, use 1990 as the baseline year. Using the same measuring stick, Washington would cut emissions by four percent on 1990 levels by 2020.

If the country cannot achieve even this at the congressional level, the chances of a global deal become ever more unlikely.

The Obama administration does have a plan B, should the bill be defeated.

In 2007, the US Supreme Court ruled that the Environmental Protection Agency, a government regulatory body, has the authority to regulate greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act. Instead of legislation forcing industry to cap its emissions, the EPA could simply regulate that they must do so.

Asked about the plan B, Ms Hedegaard was not optimistic and feared that the EPA, should it choose to do so in the absence of climate legislation, would almost certainly be faced with a series of lawsuits from enterprises affected by its enforcement of the Clean Air Act.



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F.E.L.S.E.F. ® PROFILE AND MISSION STATEMENT


The Forum for Environmental Law, Science, Engineering and Finance ™, or F.E.L.S.E.F. ®, is an inter-professional non-profit educational tool dedicated to the exchange of ideas through the development of a network of leading environmental professionals and policy makers of all backgrounds.

F.E.L.S.E.F. ® first took on this challenge by means of lunch panel discussions in downtown Washington, D.C.. In its first three years, from the fall of 1996 to the spring of 1999, F.E.L.S.E.F. ® produced and hosted 41 lunch seminars.

FAILSAFE ®, the organization's flagship publication, also seeks to foster multi-lateral thinking and dialogue, but between writer and reader, and by means of electronic or "virtual" fora. FAILSAFE ® allows its members to read and write presentations on technical topics within an expertly managed and moderated circle of their peers. By means of the Internet, FAILSAFE ® builds on and leverages against the F.E.L.S.E.F. ® network and gives it a global dimension.

The FORUM ™ WEB SITE is the organization's latest electronic tool of mass communication. The new official Web site of F.E.L.S.E.F.® will allow an unprecedented increase in the amount of ideas which it can intermediate between key members of its network. Much more than the electronic journal could ever do all by itself, the new Web site, accessible from anywhere in the world and at anytime of the day or night, will allow panelist and program-goer alike to dispense with the challenges and frustrations associated with having to carve out vital work or lunch time to travel across town (or farther) for far too brief and too infrequent panel discussions. By means of the World Wide Web, the FORUM ™ WEB SITE builds on and leverages against the network developed by the FAILSAFE ® journals and the F.E.L.S.E.F. ® lunches.


F.E.L.S.E.F.® pursues the objective of eventually creating a common language and spirit of cooperation among all environmental professionals and policy makers. Without such a common language and spirit of cooperation, a world where environmental protection can be reconciled with economic growth, the ultimate objective of F.E.L.S.E.F. ®, will never come to be.

To "failsafe" is an intransitive verb defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as meaning "to revert to a danger-free condition in the event of a break down...". "Break down" sums up aptly the current condition of our traditional political, legal and regulatory system of environmental protection, as uncompromising and doctrinaire interests have gridlocked the process of reform. The no-compromise approach adopted these past few years by both sides of the environmental protection reform debate may have foiled the plans of the opposition and solidly anchored the sides to their respective constituencies, but only at the expense of denying us all a well reasoned evolution of our system of environmental protection.

F.E.L.S.E.F. ® aims to "failsafe" our traditional system of environmental protection. F.E.L.S.E.F.® is dedicated to allowing those people with the greatest knowledge about the environment, namely, the environmental professionals in law, science, engineering and finance, and the policy makers who rely on their expert judgment, an opportunity to remove themselves from the deadlocked ideological debate and establish multilateral lines of communication on neutral ground. F.E.L.S.E.F. ®'s agenda is process-oriented, not results-oriented: to provide convenient fora on a regular basis for environmental professionals and policy makers to learn more about technical challenges facing them, find out what they already agree on, work on arriving at new agreements and coordinated responses, and explain to each other what they still cannot agree upon and why.

F.E.L.S.E.F. ®, thanks to the Internet, cannot only shrink time and distance, but also flatten organizational hierarchies and allow the exchange of ideas not just horizontally from one person in one group to another person in another group, but also vertically from one person to another above or below in the same group. Thanks to its ability to let us engage in asynchronous dialogue from our home or offices anywhere in the world, at any time of the day or night, the Internet now allows presentations to be diffused to a circle 10, 20, 50, or even 100, times larger than what could previously be fit comfortably into one conference room, without significant degradation in the ability of any one participant to address questions to and dialogue with a presenter.

However, unlike most virtual fora that exist only on the Internet, F.E.L.S.E.F. ® is a REAL and not a pure virtual community, in that many, if not most, of its members have had and continue to have ample occasion to meet and converse face to face at work and in other settings. The real human groundwork was set down by F.E.L.S.E.F. ®: the 41 lunch panel seminars held in downtown Washington, D.C.. provided our group with a real set of human contacts and ties, and this human groundwork still makes it more valuable to its members than any pure virtual community could ever be. In addition, Michael Frodl's continuing commitment to managing personally the F.E.L.S.E.F. ® network guarantees that the community shall remain vital and real.

Through F.E.L.S.E.F. ® participants can continue to develop a network of professional contacts that cut across traditional disciplinary boundaries, a network that benefits not only their personal careers but also the environment. Environmental protection is indirectly enhanced as lawyers, scientists, engineers and financiers, as well as policy makers, learn to view environmental challenges from an interdisciplinary perspective, use their expanded personal networks to mobilize resources across professions, and craft integrated responses to these same environmental challenges. Capitalizing on this new professional advantage, these professionals and policy makers move up to increasingly more influential stations in their organizations and in society. From higher up on the ladder, these members of the F.E.L.S.E.F. ® community give further credit to the cooperative interprofessional approach fostered and developed by our fora.

Lastly, one other indirect and perhaps even the most important benefit deriving from these cooperative interprofessional fora is that F.E.L.S.E.F. ® continues to serve as an alternative model for those who have brought the traditional political process of environmental reform to a halt and who have yet to find a reason or a way out of the trenches they have dug themselves into. If the F.E.L.S.E.F. ® community can participate in regular forum discussions of technical issues in a non-confrontational, dispassionate and productive manner, then what's stopping the others?


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F.E.L.S.E.F. ® GLOBAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL NETWORKS


FAILSAFE ® is distributed by a combined e-mail notification and Web site posting system. Quarterly e-mail notices now go out to every continent and to three dozen nations all over the globe. Just as striking, over 1000 organizations are represented by our recipients.

This global dissemination of our journal is the result not of any recruitment campaign, but of the cumulative effect of people all over the world hearing about FAILSAFE ® through electronic word-of-mouth and e-mailing us to get on our distribution list.

After just a few years of distributing the journal via the Internet, we now have regular readers in the following regions and countries:


NORTH AMERICA:

Bermuda, Canada, Mexico & United States


CENTRAL AMERICA:

Costa Rica & Panama


SOUTH AMERICA:

Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador & Venezuela


EUROPE:

Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland & United Kingdom


FORMER SOVIET BLOC:

Russia & Ukraine


AFRICA:

Egypt & Republic of South Africa


ASIA-PACIFIC:

Australia, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, P.R.C.-China,
R.O.C.-China & Thailand


What started out as a supplement to F.E.L.S.E.F. ®'s Washington-based lunch-time fora unwittingly became a global electronic forum in its own right. Given that all the materials we print are written and submitted by our own readers, and read by our other readers, who then contact each other directly, FAILSAFE ® has truly become the world's first interactive, open yet exclusive, electronic journal for leading environmental professionals and policy makers with global interests and perspectives.



Furthermore, FAILSAFE ® is read by a network of people from over 1000 organizations that represent all the key environmental professionals and policy makers in the public, private and NGO sectors. Represented among the more than 1500 subscribers are:


- over 250 NATIONAL OR MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS (including Abbott Laboratories; American Honda; Baxter International; Bechtel; Bethlehem Steel; Boeing; Chrysler; Coca Cola; Delta Airlines; Dow Chemical; DuPont; Enron; Exxon - Mobil; FedEx; Ford; General Dynamics; General Electric; General Motors; Geneva Steel; Intel; IBM; International Paper; Lockheed Martin; Lucent Technologies; McDonald's; Merck; 3M; Monsanto; Motorola; Pennzoil; Pfizer; RJR Nabisco; UPS; USX - U.S. Steel; Union Carbide; United Airlines; United Technologies; Westinghouse; Weyerhouser; Xerox; etc.);

- over 100 TRADE ASSOCIATIONS (including Aerospace Industries Association of America; American Automobile Manufacturers' Association; American Public Works Association; Air Transport Association; Association of American Railroads; Chemical Manufacturers' Association; Edison Electric Institute; Environmental Export Council; Electronic Industries Association; National Association of Home Builders; National Association of Manufacturers; Nuclear Energy Institute; Reinsurance Association of America; U.S. Chamber of Commerce; etc.);

- over 100 NATIONAL OR INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS (including AIG; BT Alex Brown; Bank of America; Chase Manhattan Bank; Citicorp; Goldman Sachs; the IFC; the IMF; J.P.Morgan; Kemper Environmental; Lehman Brothers; Mellon Bank; Morgan Stanley; Salomon Smith Barney; the World Bank; Zurich Re; etc.);

- over 200 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS (including Browning - Ferris Industries; Clean Sites; The Cadmus Group; CH2M Hill; Dames & Moore; Development Alternatives International; DynCorp; Georgetown Risk Group; Hagler Bailly; The Hart Partners; ICF Kaiser Consulting; Louis Berger International; Montgomery Watson; Ogden Projects; Prizm; Radian; Resolve; RTM; Science Applications International Corp; Waste Management; Waste Policy Center; Roy F. Weston, Inc.; etc.);

- over 250 LAW FIRMS (including Arnold & Porter; Baker & McKenzie; Beveridge & Diamond; Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen & Hamilton; Coudert Brothers; Covington & Burling; Cravath, Swaine & Moore; Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver & Jacobson; Hogan & Hartson; Holland & Knight; Jones, Day, Reavis & Pogue; Kelley, Drye & Warren; McKenna & Cuneo; Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy; Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison; Sherman & Sterling; Sidley & Austin; Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom; Steptoe & Johnson; Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering; Winston & Strawn; etc.);

- over 100 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL ADVOCACY GROUPS (including Center for International Environmental Law; Center for Sustainable Development in the Americas; Defenders of Wildlife; Environmental Defense Fund; Environmental Law Institute; National Wildlife Federation; Natural Resources Defense Council; Nature Conservancy; Resources for the Future; Sierra Club; World Resources Institute; World Wildlife Fund; etc.);


AS WELL AS:

- the WHITE HOUSE, including the Council on Environmental Quality; the Office of Science and Technology Policy; the Office of the Vice President; the President's Council of Economic Advisors; the National Security Council; the President's Council on Sustainable Development; and the White House Task Force on Global Climate Change;

- the EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Energy, Interior, Justice, Labor, State, Transportation, and others;

- the ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, including the Office of the Administrator;

- all CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES that have jurisdiction over the environment;

- and SCHOLARLY INSTITUTIONS including think tanks, institutes and universities.


Our readers are our writers, and our writers are our readers. In addition to learning something new about the environment, by reading and writing for FAILSAFE ® you can read and be read by nationally- and internationally-recognized authorities from all over the world and from every sector of the public, private and NGO sectors. Through FAILSAFE ® you can benefit from unmatched opportunities for education on the issues, as well as from unparalleled chances for rewarding professional networking and business development.

Read it, pass it along, and even write for it: FAILSAFE ® is YOUR very own vehicle for tapping into the nascent but quickly expanding network of elite global environmental experts and decision makers.

In this age of global and organizational networks, can you really still afford to go it alone?


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F.E.L.S.E.F. ® RULES FOR SUBSCRIPTIONS, SUBMISSIONS, AND NETWORK MEMBERSHIP


SUBSCRIPTIONS:



-ADHESIONS:

There is no charge for a permanent e-mail subscription to quarterly notices about Web site posting of the latest issue of FAILSAFE ®. Such a subscription also constitutes full membership in the F.E.L.S.E.F. ® network.

To make sure you regularly receive our quarterly e-mail reminder, please send an e-mail with your name, job title, organization, work street address, work phone, work fax and e-mail address to Michael Frodl at mgfrodl@tidalwave.net.

You will NOT be included if you do not provide this information: NO EXCEPTIONS.

Please rest assured, your e-mail address and professional information will remain totally confidential and will NOT be shared with any third parties under ANY condition.

Your e-mail shall normally be answered and complied with within ONE business day.



-REMOVALS:


--VOLUNTARY:

You can have your name removed from the distribution list at any time by sending another e-mail to Michael Frodl and requesting as much.


--INVOLUNTARY:

Inclusion in the distribution list for e-mail reminders about the latest FAILSAFE ® journal constitutes ipso facto acceptance of Michael Frodl's reserving the final right to remove a person from the F.E.L.S.E.F. ® network.

Cause for removal shall include, but shall not be limited to: abusing the opportunity to contact contributors to the journal who provide e-mail and other contact information, either by using their e-mail address and /or other contact information to engage in discourse with contributors that the targeted contributor(s) AND Michael Frodl find uncivil and offensive, or by using the e-mail addresses and / or contact information of one or several contributor(s) in one issue or over several issues in order to develop a mass mailing list that is directed backwards against contributors to target them for whatever purpose, offensive or not. Collecting the e-mail addresses and /or other contact information of other F.E.L.S.E.F. ® network members who were participants in F.E.L.S.E.F. ® lunches in order to develop a mass mailing list that is directed backwards against them to target them for whatever purpose, offensive or not, shall similarly be deemed grounds for removal. The trust, confidence and semi-privacy of our contributors and other members of the F.E.L.S.E.F. ® network will not be abused or wantonly violated.

In all cases, passing along the e-mail address and / or contact information of contributors and / or other network members to third parties to do indirectly what is forbidden a F.E.L.S.E.F. ® network member to do directly will not free the original F.E.L.S.E.F. ® network member from liability.

In addition, stripping out one or more contributions or other sections of an issue and passing it or them along unbundled to one or more third parties by posting, reprinting, or any other means, is also cause for removal. Each issue is to be passed along ONLY intact and NOT in parts: our understanding with contributors and the protection of our and their copyrights in the issue require as much.

Michael Frodl and F.E.L.S.E.F. ® reserve the right to supplement removal from the F.E.L.S.E.F. ® network in especially egregious cases by legal remedies in the appropriate court of law.

These basic rules are intended to protect the trust, confidence and privacy of the contributors and other members of the network, to protect the intellectual property rights of our contributors and of Michael G. Frodl, and to protect the integrity of F.E.L.S.E.F. ®, the FAILSAFE ® journal, and the FORUM ™ WEB SITE, as well as to assure the continued success and survival of our unique and high quality human network.


SUBMISSIONS:


Those of you, and ONLY those of you, who are on the e-mail reminder service for FAILSAFE ® (or agree to be included on it) are entitled to submit materials to be considered for inclusion in a future issue.

Please send an e-mail to Michael Frodl at mgfrodl@tidalwave.net with your document included as an attachment (OUTSIDE the body of the e-mail, please!) in WordPerfect 6.1 or MS Word 6.0.. Do NOT encode the file. Please also include a phone number and indicate a date and time when it is best to call you back about your submission. FAILURE TO FOLLOW THESE SIMPLE RULES WILL RESULT IN YOUR SUBMISSION BEING AUTOMATICALLY REJECTED.

Contributors are NOT remunerated for the content they provide, but they DO retain copyright in the document after it has been published in FAILSAFE ®. By submitting their text for consideration, contributors are deemed to have provided Michael Frodl with permission to publish their writings ONCE in one issue of FAILSAFE ®, and nothing more, if the text is accepted. THESE TERMS ARE NON-NEGOTIABLE.

In the case of an ORIGINAL contribution that has been published first in FAILSAFE ® (i.e., a contribution written expressly for inclusion in FAILSAFE ®), contributors who cite or resubmit their text elsewhere after initial publication in FAILSAFE ® are asked to note that their work first appeared in FAILSAFE ®, and to provide the particulars about date, volume and number of the issue in which it first appeared.

Doctrinaire tracts, partisan tirades, ad hominem attacks and / or lobbying efforts are NOT acceptable. In addition, contributions that 1) do not have a technical or policy-related theme that pertains to environmental protection and / or 2) which are philosophically opposed to economic growth will NOT be accepted. F.E.L.S.E.F. ® is by definition dedicated to reconciling environmental protection and economic growth.

Contributions from people outside the current circle of readers are NOT discouraged, but if a contribution IS accepted, the contributor MUST agree to become part of the network of regular recipients of notices about the latest issue of FAILSAFE ®. The F.E.L.S.E.F. ® network is meant to remain a cooperative and interactive community, and must NOT become just another target audience for one-way broadcasts from outsiders with their own opportunistic agendas. Michael Frodl reserves final and exclusive right to determine whether a contributor can and will honestly meet this requirement. If Michael Frodl determines that a potential contributor cannot or will not, then their materials will be returned to them and they will not be offered membership in the network.

A contribution will first be considered for "GUEST COLUMN" status, which allows for submissions of up to approximately 5 pages, double-spaced. In-depth reporting on an issue or organization of special interest to the F.E.L.S.E.F. ® community can warrant the granting of "SPECIAL REPORT" status to a contribution, which allows typically for submissions of up to 15 pages, double-spaced. In unusual circumstances, a contribution accepted as a "SPECIAL REPORT" can be granted more space in an issue. Michael Frodl reserves final and exclusive right to determine what status, if any, a contribution will be granted.

To be included in an issue, a contribution has to be submitted in final draft acceptable to Michael Frodl no later than the 15th day of the month preceding the month of the issue intended (FAILSAFE ® is published electronically and distributed via the FORUM ™ Web site on or about the 1st of the month, in March, June, September and December).

In any and all matters, Michael Frodl reserves final and exclusive right to determine what is appropriate for publication in FAILSAFE ®.


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FAILSAFE ® BACK ISSUES AND RELATED PUBLICATIONS


FAILSAFE ® BACK ISSUES include back issues of FAILSAFE ® and of its immediate ancestor, the Environmental Law Committee's THE FORUM ™ (NOT to be confused with the new FORUM ™ WEB SITE), the newsletter that initiated the Special Reports series. We make these older items again available given the amount of sincere appreciation expressed about the current Special Reports. Loyal FAILSAFE ® readers can now go back and read an old THE FORUM ™ Special Report on an issue of interest. Likewise, new readers of FAILSAFE ® may now go back and acquire the earlier issues they missed and so have a complete set dating back to 1995.

[PLEASE NOTE: Since the launching of the FORUM ™ WEB SITE in October 1999, the most recent back issues of FAILSAFE ®, all formatted in HTML, have been posted on the World Wide Web and are available for downloading free of charge. They can be accessed by clicking here.]

RELATED PUBLICATIONS include the 41 PROGRAM REPORTS generated by the three years of panel lunches organized by F.E.L.S.E.F. ®, as well as 3 lunches hosted by the Environmental Law Committee of the Bar Association of D.C., a precursor to F.E.L.S.E.F. ®. A list of these Reports can be ordered by sending an e-mail to mgfrodl@tidalwave.net. Each Report costs $ 50 U.S., shipping and handling included. They are available in hard copy ONLY.

TO ORDER: If you are interested in purchasing a back issue of THE FORUM ™ or FAILSAFE ®, please send an e-mail to Michael Frodl at mgfrodl@tidalwave.net. Your e-mail will normally be answered within one business day of receipt and you will be instructed where to mail a check payable to Michael Frodl in the amount of $ 10 U.S. per back issue, along with a business card with the name and date of the report(s) you are ordering noted on the back side. Only prepaid requests shall be honored. All but the earliest back issues are available as electronic files ONLY. The issue(s) requested shall normally be e-mailed to you within 5 business days of receipt of your check.



BACK ISSUES OF THE FORUM ™:


COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS AND THE SANTA FE INSTITUTE. Special Report in the February 1996 issue of THE FORUM ™. Guest columnist: L.M. Simmons, Jr., Ph.D., Vice President of the Santa Fe Institute.

THE YALE CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL LAW AND POLICY. Special Report in the April 1996 issue of THE FORUM ™. Guest columnist(s): Daniel C. Esty, Esq., et al..

THE GLOBAL SYSTEMS INITIATIVE OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. Special Report in the June 1996 issue of THE FORUM ™. Guest columnist: Lewis E. Gilbert, Ph.D..



BACK ISSUES OF FAILSAFE ®:


THE HISTORY OF THE GENESIS OF THE FORUM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL LAW, SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND FINANCE ™. Letter from the Founder and Chairman in the September 1996 issue of FAILSAFE ®.

THE SYMBOL OF F.E.L.S.E.F. ®: THE "SPIRA MIRABILIS" OR "WONDERFUL SPIRAL". Letter from the Founder and Chairman in the October 1996 issue of FAILSAFE ®, followed immediately by: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE ENVIRONMENTAL BANKERS ASSOCIATION. Special Report on a F.E.L.S.E.F. ® co-sponsor. Guest columnist: Dean Jeffery Telego, Executive Co-Director of EBA.

THE BERMUDA BIOLOGICAL STATION FOR RESEARCH AND THE RISK PREDICTION INITIATIVE. Special Report in the November 1996 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Guest columnist: Anthony H. Knap, Ph.D., & Director of BBSR.

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HAZARDOUS WASTE ACTION COALITION. Special Report on a F.E.L.S.E.F. ® co-sponsor in the December 1996 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Guest columnist: Manisha D. Patel, HWAC Staff Assistant.

A "GPS" TO TARGET, TRACK AND ACQUIRE NEW TECHNOLOGY MARKETS. Special Report in the January 1997 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Guest columnist: Paul Allen, President, Unisphere.

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE AMERICAN INSURANCE ASSOCIATION. Special Report on a F.E.L.S.E.F. ® co-sponsor in the February 1997 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Guest columnist: John G. Arlington, Assistant Vice President for Federal Affairs, AIA.

THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY'S SCIENCE, INDUSTRY AND BUSINESS LIBRARY. Special Report in the March 1997 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Guest columnist: Billy Kenny, Assistant Manager for Public Relations, at the New York Public Library.

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE ENVIRONMENTAL LAW COMMITTEE OF THE BAR ASSOCIATION OF THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. Special Report on a F.E.L.S.E.F. ® co-sponsor in the April 1997 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Edited by Michael G. Frodl.

THE PRESIDENT'S COUNCIL ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. Special Report in the May 1997 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Guest columnist: Martin A. Spitzer, Executive Director of the PCSD.

U.S. E.P.A. ADMINISTRATOR BROWNER COMMENTS ON THE NEW PARTICULATE AND OZONE STANDARDS. Special Report in the September 1997 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Guest columnist: the Honorable Carol M. Browner.

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE AMERICAN PUBLIC WORKS ASSOCIATION AND ITS "REBUILD AMERICA" COALITION, COSPONSORS OF THE YEAR-LONG SERIES ON ENVIRONMENT AND INFRASTRUCTURE. Special Report in the October 1997 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Prepared with the assistance of Gerri Perez, Manager of "Rebuild America".

YALE UNIVERSITY'S MARIAN CHERTOW AND DANIEL ESTY REPORT ON THE RESULTS OF YALE'S "NEXT GENERATION" PROJECT & THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION'S REPORT ON REFORMING ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION. Two Special Reports in the November 1997 issue of FAILSAFE ®.

I.B.M.'S ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH PROGRAM: MEETING SCIENTIFIC AND POLICY CHALLENGES WITH ADVANCED INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES. Special Report in the December 1997 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Prepared with the assistance of Dr. J.E. Sarsenski of I.B.M..

COLLECTED ESSAYS BY THE PRESENTERS AT THE DECEMBER 16, 1997, F.E.L.S.E.F. ® PROGRAM ON THE RESULTS OF THE KYOTO SUMMIT. Special Report in the January 1998 issue of FAILSAFE ®.

"E4E"' PROJECT DIRECTOR KARL HAUSKER, PH.D., SUMMARIZES THE RESULTS OF THE "ENTERPRISE FOR THE ENVIRONMENT". Special Report in the February 1998 issue of FAILSAFE ®.

"TROPICAL CYCLONES AND CLIMATE VARIABILITY: A RESEARCH AGENDA FOR THE NEXT CENTURY & THE ENVIRONMENTAL COUNCIL OF THE STATES ("ECOS"). Two Special Reports in the March 1998 issue of FAILSAFE ®.

REMARKS BY VICE PRESIDENT AL GORE TO THE COUNCIL ON COMPETITIVENESS' INNOVATION SUMMIT HELD AT M.I.T. & "ACHIEVING A BETTER ENVIRONMENT FOR OUR FAMILIES" by Pete Wilson, Governor of California. Two Special Reports in the April 1998 issue of FAILSAFE ®.

Environmental Financial Advisory Board Publication on Brownfields: "EXPEDITING CLEAN-UP AND REDEVELOPMENT OF BROWNFIELDS: ADDRESSING THE MAJOR BARRIERS TO PRIVATE SECTOR INVOLVEMENT - REAL OR PERCEIVED". Special Report in the May 1998 issue of FAILSAFE ®.

FRODL REPORTS ™ / CLIMATE EXPERT MARKET ™: "THE CLIMATE CHANGE CONVENTION AND THE KYOTO PROTOCOL: SOME PROCEDURAL WRINKLES", by Robert J. McManus, Esq., & "THE TRANSPORTATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF INFILL VERSUS GREENFIELD DEVELOPMENT: A Comparative Case Study Analysis Commissioned by U.S. EPA". Two Special Reports in the June 1998 issue of FAILSAFE ®.

FRODL REPORTS ™ / CLIMATE EXPERT MARKET ™: "CLIMATE CHANGE AFTER BONN: A CASE FOR INDUSTRY ACTION?", by Frances Sussman, Ph.D., ICF Kaiser Consulting Group, Washington, D.C. & "MANAGING PLACES AND SPACES FOR LIVING IN THE 21ST CENTURY: PERSPECTIVES FROM THE NETHERLANDS ON BECOMING SUSTAINABLE", A Symposium Held at the Royal Netherlands Embassy, and Related Documents. Two Special Reports in the July 1998 issue of FAILSAFE ®.

FRODL REPORTS ™ / CLIMATE EXPERT MARKET ™: "PRESERVING FLEXIBILITY IN THE KYOTO PROTOCOL", by Anne E. Smith, Vice President, Charles River Associates, Washington, D.C., & "INNOVATIONS IN GROUND WATER AND SOIL CLEANUP: FROM CONCEPT TO COMMERCIALIZATION", Excerpt from a National Research Council Report of the Same Name. Two Special Reports in the August 1998 issue of FAILSAFE ®.

"COSTA RICA: A COUNTRY MADE UNIQUE BY EXPERIMENTATION", by Christiana Figueres, Executive Director of the Center for Sustainable Development in the Americas ("CSDA"), followed by "THE COSTA RICAN EXPERIENCE WITH MARKET INSTRUMENTS TO MITIGATE CLIMATE CHANGE AND CONSERVE BIODIVERSITY" by Rene Castro, Costa Rica's Minister of Environment & Energy, and by Franz Tattenbach, with la Fundacion Para el Desarollo de la Cordillera Volcanica Central ("FUNDECOR") & FRODL REPORTS ™ / CLIMATE EXPERT MARKET ™: "CARBON FORESTRY AND THE KYOTO PROTOCOL'S CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM: A LEGAL ANALYSIS" by Jonathan Rotter, Regional Counsel for Latin America and the Caribbean at the Nature Conservancy, and Kyle Danish, Associate with the Law Firm of Hunton & Williams, & AN INTRODUCTION TO THE WOMEN'S COUNCIL ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ("WCEE"), thanks to Polly Shaw, Communications Chair for the WCEE Board of Directors and an Associate with ICF Kaiser Consulting. Three Special Reports in the September 1998 issue of FAILSAFE ®.

"WHEN PEOPLE AND NATURE COLLIDE: A NEW APPROACH TO NATURAL DISASTER REDUCTION" by Elaine R. Padovani, Agency Representative, National Science and Technology Council, Environment Division of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President. Special Report in the October 1998 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Plus four guest columns: "REGULATORY REFORM DEFANGED: AN ACCEPTABLE AGREEMENT ON BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS HAS FINALLY BEEN REACHED" and "WASTE SITE CLEAN-UPS IN SLOW MOTION: CONGRESS NEEDS TO FIX THE RCRA CLEAN-UP PROGRAM" by Debra S. Knopman, Director of the Center for Innovation & the Environment of the Progressive Policy Institute in Washington, DC.; "ATTACKING GLOBAL WARMING: LET'S CRAWL BEFORE WE WALK" by Robert W. Hahn, Director of the AEI-Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies; "THE INTEL NEGOTIATIONS: THE CASE FOR PROACTIVE INSIDE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT & LAWYERING" by James M. Thunder, Lawyer and Management Consultant, McLean, Virginia.

"BUILD UP TO THE BUENOS AIRES COP-4: LEADING COMPANIES TAKE VOLUNTARY STEPS TO REDUCE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS, AND THE WHITE HOUSE PRAISES THEIR INITIATIVES", a Special Report in the November 1998 FAILSAFE ® with contributions from the Office of the Vice President; General Motors, Monsanto, B.P America, and the World Resources Institute; U.S. EPA; International Business Machines Corp., the Bureau of National Affairs; and the President's Council on Sustainable Development. "COP-4 IN BUENOS AIRES: NEAR-TERM ISSUES AND LONG-TERM STRATEGIES FOR U.S. BUSINESS" by Dr. Mark C. Trexler, President & Michael S. Burnett, Vice President, Trexler and Associates, Inc.: FRODL REPORTS ™ / CLIMATE EXPERT MARKET ™ Special Report. And two Guest Columns: "CALIFORNIA AND ENDANGERED SPECIES: REFORMS, ECOSYSTEMS, PARTNERING" by Douglas P. Wheeler, California Secretary for Resources; and "THE ODYSSEY AND OPPORTUNITIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT IN AN INFORMATION AGE" by Michael J. Penders, Special Counsel, Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics, and Training, U.S. EPA.

"A CLIMATE OF VULNERABILITY", a Special Report in the December 1998 FAILSAFE ®, co-authored by Lisa J. Farrow and J. Michael Hall, Program Director for Latin America, Climate and Global Change Program, NOAA Office of Global Programs, and Director, NOAA Office of Global Programs, respectively. "ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE" by Joel B. Smith with Stratus Consulting Inc., a FRODL REPORTS ™ / CLIMATE EXPERT MARKET ™ Special Report. "CARBON DIOXIDE, CLIMATE CHANGE AND HURRICANES", a Guest Column by Nicholas R. Bates and Anthony H. Knap with the Bermuda Biological Station for Research, and Anthony F. Michaels with Wrigley Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Southern California. "INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING AS A BUSINESS MANAGEMENT TOOL: KEY CONCEPTS AND TERMS", a Special Report from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Design for Environment Program, Environmental Accounting Project.

"ISO 14000, "DUAL-TRACKING" REGULATORY SYSTEMS, AND STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS", Two columns / Special Report in the January 1999 FAILSAFE ® by Ira Feldman, President, "GT Strategies + Solutions". "KEMPER ENVIRONMENTAL'S SOLUTIONS FOR BROWNFIELDS", a Special Report by Brad A. Mauer Esq., C.P.C.U., Director, Commercial & Real Estate Markets, Kemper Environmental. "GREEN SHAREHOLDER VALUE, HYPE OR HIT?" a Special Report by Donald J. Reed, CFA, World Resources Institute. "PARADOXES IN PARADISE (#1) -COSTA RICA'S EFFORTS TO SAVE ITSELF- A 1991 report on the successes and shortcomings of Costa Rica's conservation strategies", a Guest Column by Holly Kaufman, Environment & Enterprise Strategies.

"WHITE HOUSE ANNOUNCES CLINTON-GORE LIVABILITY AGENDA: BUILDING LIVABLE COMMUNITIES FOR THE 21ST CENTURY", a Special Report in the February 1999 FAILSAFE ®. "IBM'S EXPERIENCE IMPLEMENTING ISO 14001 ON A GLOBAL BASIS: DOES ISO 14001 ACHIEVE ITS INTENDED GOALS?", a Special Report by Wayne Balta, Director, Corporate Environmental Affairs, IBM Corp. and Gayle Woodside, Program Manager, Corporate Environmental Affairs, IBM Corp..

"THE NEW ENVIRONMENTAL INSURANCE PRODUCTS: WHEN DOES IT MAKE SENSE TO BUY THEM?", a Special Report in the March 1999 FAILSAFE ® by Susan Neuman, President, Environmental Insurance Agency. "MITIGATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE: A SCIENTIFIC APPRAISAL", a Special Report by S. Fred Singer, Ph.D..

"PRESIDENT CLINTON EXPANDS FEDERAL EFFORTS TO COMBAT BIOLOGICAL INVADERS: EXECUTIVE ORDER 13112 OF FEBRUARY 3, 1999 ON INVASIVE SPECIES", a Special Report in the April 1999 FAILSAFE ®. "IT'S "CARPE DIEM" TIME FOR FLEXIBLE PERMITTING" a Special Report by Stephen Harper, Manager, Environmental, Health, and Safety Policy, Intel Corporation; "FUNDING BROWNFIELD REMEDIATION WITH THE CLEAN WATER STATE REVOLVING FUND", A Special Report by Kristin S. Kenausis, Communications Specialist, State Revolving Fund Branch, Office of Water, U.S. EPA; and "PARADOXES IN PARADISE (#2) -HOW COSTA RICA IS SAVING THE REST OF US- A 1996 update on the successes and shortcomings of Costa Rica's conservation strategies", a Guest Column by Holly Kaufman, Environment & Enterprise Strategies.

"SENATOR JOSEPH LIEBERMAN (D-CT) COMMENTS ON LEGISLATION HE IS CO-SPONSORING FOR CREDITS TO INDUSTRY FOR EARLY ACTION", a Guest Column in the May 1999 issue of FAILSAFE ®. "A COMPARISON OF CHESAPEAKE BAY AND LONG ISLAND SOUND AND THEIR RESPECTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY CHALLENGES FROM THE PERSPECTIVES OF GOVERNMENT, PRIVATE SECTOR AND NGO", a Special Report produced by Phyllis Vinson-Leslie, Esq. Includes: "A CHESAPEAKE PERSPECTIVE ON ESTUARINE MANAGEMENT by Dr. Kent Mountford, Senior Scientist, US EPA Region III Chesapeake Bay Program; "RESTORING COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS: THE LONG ISLAND SOUND EXAMPLE", by Mark A. Tedesco, Director, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Long Island Sound Study Office, Stamford, Connecticut; "CHESAPEAKE BAY: THE "BUSINESS FOR THE BAY" INITIATIVE AND THE ROLE OF DUPONT" by Robert L. Dunn, Environmental Affairs Manager, for Virginia State Facilities, DuPont Corp.; and "LONG ISLAND SOUND: THE PERSPECTIVE FROM THE NGO SAVE THE SOUND'" by John Atkin, President of "Save the Sound". "FINANCING DEVELOPMENT OF CONTAMINATED PROPERTIES", a Special Report by Larry Schnapf, Esq.. SPECIAL REPORT: "CLINTON ADMINISTRATION ANNOUNCES NEW INITIATIVE TO COMBAT WATER POLLUTION FROM ANIMAL FEEDLOT OPERATIONS."

"REMARKS PREPARED FOR DELIVERY BY FORMER VICE PRESIDENT DAN QUAYLE, CANDIDATE FOR THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES", a Guest Column in the June 1999 issue of FAILSAFE ®. "RPI UNVEILS PUBLIC RISK MODEL", a Special Report by Drs. David Malmquist and Rick Murnane, Risk Prediction Initiative (RPI), Bermuda Biological Station for Research. "CLINTON ADMINISTRATION ANNOUNCES NEW INITIATIVES TO REDUCE HARMFUL EMISSIONS FROM PASSENGER VEHICLES, INCLUDING SUV'S", a Special Report. "SPACE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING CENTER UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN AT MADISON", a Special Report. "EXCERPTS FROM E&E PUBLISHING LLC'S 1999 ENVIRONMENT & ENERGY ISSUES GUIDEBOOK: KYOTO PROTOCOL BESET BY POLITICAL, ECONOMIC CHALLENGES' by Neil Franz; and ISSUE PAPERS: REGULATORY REFORM - TOPIC SUMMARY'", a Special Report.

"REMARKS BY FRANCES SEYMOUR TO THE FORUM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL LAW, SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND FINANCE ™, MAY 18, 1999: U.S. International Investment Policy: Obstacle or Tool for Achieving Global Environmental Policy Goals?'", a Guest Column in the July 1999 issue of FAILSAFE ®. "THE ENERGY AND CLIMATE POLICY ACT OF 1999: STATEMENT OF SENATOR FRANK MURKOWSKI (R-AK), APRIL 27, 1999, a Special Report. "SECOND GENERATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP: Improve Environmental Results and Broaden Civic Engagement", a Special Report by Debra S. Knopman and Emily Fleschner. "SILENT REVOLUTION: Dutch Industry and the Dutch Government are Working Together for a Better Environment", Special Report. ENVIRONMENT & ENERGY WEEKLY of 05/17/99: "ENVIRONMENT SURFACES AS ISSUE FOR UPCOMING MARITIME POLICY", a Special Report.

"STATEMENT OF THE HON. DAVID M. McINTOSH (R-IN), CHAIRMAN, SUBCOMMITTEE ON NATIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH, NATURAL RESOURCES AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS, COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT REFORM, U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES ON HIS INTRODUCTION OF H.R. 2221, THE SMALL BUSINESS, FAMILY FARMS AND CONSTITUTIONAL PROTECTION ACT', June 15, 1999," followed by "UPDATE ON THE DEBATE SURROUNDING H.R. 2221 AND RELATED JULY 15TH HEARING," by MARLO LEWIS, Staff Director, Subcommittee on National Economic Growth, Natural Resources and Regulatory Affairs, House Committee on Government Reform, July 23, 1999, a Special Report in the August 1999 issue of FAILSAFE ®. "SELECT PRESS AND EXCERPTS FROM THE HEARING ON CREDIT FOR EARLY ACTION: 'WIN-WIN OR KYOTO THROUGH THE FRONT DOOR?' held by the SUBCOMMITTEE ON NATIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH, NATURAL RESOURCES AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS, OF THE COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT REFORM OF THE U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, July 15, 1999," a Special Report. "BROWNFIELDS LAW AND PRACTICE: THE CLEANUP AND REDEVELOPMENT OF CONTAMINATED LAND", Michael B. Gerrard, Arnold & Porter, General Editor, a Special Report.

"DEVELOPMENTS PERTAINING TO UN IPCC AND EUROPEAN TAXATION", Prepared Remarks of Warren L. Dean, Jr., Presented to the IATA Fuel Trade Meeting in San Francisco, California, 11-13 May 1999, the Guest Column in the September 1999 issue of FAILSAFE ®. "POWER PLAY: Deregulation doesn't have to be chaotic, say two IBM researchers who've designed a software tool to predict electricity prices", a Special Report. "THE CLEAN ENERGY ACT OF 1999: S. 1369, Introduced by Senator Jim Jeffords (R-VT), Followed by: THE ENERGY COMPETITION ACT OF 1999: H.R. 2569, Introduced by Congressman Frank Pallone, Jr. (D-NJ)", a Special Report. "MEETING THE CHALLENGE: U.S. INDUSTRY FACES THE 21ST CENTURY: THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRY", David R. Berg, Office of Technology Policy, and Grant Ferrier, CEO, Environmental Business International, a Special Report.

"DOCUMENTS, SYSTEMS AND CLUTTER: INFORMATION AT THE DESKTOP", a Guest Column by Amy Friedlander, Ph.D., in the October 1999 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "DOW JONES INDEXES & SAM SUSTAINABILITY GROUP LAUNCH SUSTAINABILITY INDEXES". Special Report # 2: "PLUMBING STANDARDS IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 1999: H.R. 623". Special Report # 3: "CREATIVE SUPERFUND SOLUTIONS: PRESENTING A NEW MANUFACTURERS ALLIANCE STUDY: A LOCAL SOLUTION TO A SUPERFUND CLEANUP: CASE STUDY OF THE SOUTHEAST ROCKFORD SITE'". Special Report # 4: "CREDIT FOR VOLUNTARY ACTIONS ACT OF 1999: H.R. 2520". Special Report # 5: "DESERTIFICATION ON COMPUTER: SIMULATION OF AN ABRUPT CHANGE IN SAHARAN VEGETATION IN THE MID-HOLOCENE'". Special Report # 6: INTERVIEW WITH EPA ADMINISTRATOR CAROL BROWNER.

"A VISION: A WORLD THAT IS GENUINELY BETTER, NOT JUST WEALTHIER", a Guest Column by Allen Hammond, in the November 1999 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: OCTOBER 6, 1999 JOINT HEARING OF THE COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT REFORM, SUBCOMMITTEE ON NATIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH, NATURAL RESOURCES AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS, AND THE COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE, SUBCOMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT, U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, "Is CO2 a Pollutant and Does EPA Have the Power to Regulate It?" Special Report # 2: "THE REGULATORY FAIRNESS AND OPENNESS ACT OF 1999": H.R. 1592. Special Report # 3: "BROWNFIELDS LAW AND PRACTICE: FINANCIAL, INSURANCE, TAX AND PARTICULAR LEGAL ISSUES IN BROWNFIELDS REDEVELOPMENT", Michael B. Gerrard. Special Report # 4: "PRIVATE PROPERTY RIGHTS IMPLEMENTATION ACT OF 1999": H.R. 2372. Special Report # 5: "BIOTECHNOLOGY, GENETICALLY MANIPULATED ORGANISMS, MODERN U.S. AGRICULTURE, TRADE AND THE ENVIRONMENT": SELECT TESTIMONY FROM RECENT U.S. HOUSE AND SENATE HEARINGS. Special Report # 6: "TRADE LIBERALIZATION REINFORCES THE NEED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL COOPERATION", WTO PRESS RELEASE.

"MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS AND THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION", a Guest Column by Jenny Bates, in the December 1999 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: WTO MINISTERIAL CONFERENCE IN SEATTLE: U.S. AGRICULTURE, BIOTECHNOLOGY, TRADE AND THE ENVIRONMENT. SELECT TESTIMONY FROM RECENT U.S. SENATE AND HOUSE HEARINGS. Special Report # 2: "THE CLEAN GASOLINE ACT OF 1999": S. 171, AND "THE ACID DEPOSITION AND OZONE CONTROL ACT OF 1999": S. 172. Special Report # 3: "CLEAN SMOKESTACKS ACT OF 1999": HR 2900. Special Report # 4: "LEGAL CONSEQUENCES OF BIOPIRACY" by Michael A. Gollin. Special Report # 5: "BETTER AMERICA BONDS ACT OF 1999": HR 2446. Special Report # 6: "A REVIEW OF MILITARY AVIATION AND SPACE ISSUES", by Major Michael Chipley, USAF, Ph.D.

"ON CLEANER CARS, GAS AND AIR", a Guest Column by William Jefferson Clinton, President of the United States, in the January 2000 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "REFRAMING THE CLIMATE CHANGE DEBATE: The United States Should Build A Domestic Market Now for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions", by Jon Naimon and Debra S. Knopman. Special Report # 2: "TRUTH IN REGULATING ACT OF 1999" / S. 1244 AND "CONGRESSIONAL ACCOUNTABILITY FOR REGULATORY INFORMATION ACT OF 1999" / S. 1198. Special Report # 3: "A REVIEW OF MILITARY AVIATION AND SPACE ISSUES: AEROSPACE AND AIRSPACE" (Part II), Major Michael Chipley, USAF, Ph.D., Air Force Executive Issues Team. Special Report # 4: "CLINTON ADMINISTRATION ANNOUNCES MAJOR CLEAN AIR INITIATIVES FOR PRIVATE VEHICLES: New single tailpipe standard for cars and SUV's, and new gasoline rules". Special Report # 5: "AN INTEGRATED OCEAN OBSERVING SYSTEM: A STRATEGY FOR IMPLEMENTING THE FIRST STEPS OF A U.S. PLAN", National Ocean Research Leadership Council of the National Oceanographic Partnership Program, December 1999. Special Report # 6: "IMPROVING THE COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING", by Deana M. Crumbling, M.S., Technology Innovation Office, U.S Environmental Protection Agency.

"DATA WAREHOUSING: THE INTELLIGENCE BEHIND THE FUTURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT", a Guest Column by Frederick Richards, III, Product Manager at MicroStrategy, Inc., in the February 2000 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "CLINTON ADMINSTRATION ANNOUNCES NEW NATIONAL MONUMENT INITIATIVES: REMARKS BY THE PRESIDENT AND RELATED BACKGROUND MATERIALS". Special Report # 2: "ORBITAL DEBRIS: AN INTRODUCTION TO ITS RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS, AND HOW THE RISKS ARE BEING MITIGATED BY THE U.S AND BY INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION". Special Report # 3: "SUSTAINABILITY RULERS: MEASURING CORPORATE ENVIRONMENTAL & SOCIAL PERFORMANCE", by Janet Ranganathan, World Resources Institute. Special Report # 4: "THE DEPENDENCE OF ANNUAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT (AEEI), ON PRICE & POLICY", by Arthur H. Rosenfeld & David A. Bassett, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. Special Report # 5: "BERMUDA BIOLOGICAL STATION FOR RESEARCH ANNOUNCES ITS PARTICIPATION IN NEW GLOBAL INITIATIVE: THE CENTER FOR INTEGRATED OCEAN OBSERVING', AKA CINTOO', VIA ITS OWN NEW SARGASSO SEA OCEAN OBSERVATORY', AKA S202'". Special Report # 6: " STATE OF THE UNION: PRESIDENT CLINTON ANNOUNCES OVER THREE BILLION DOLLARS IN NEW BIOENERGY & BIOPRODUCTS TAX INCENTIVES IN HIS FY 2001 BUDGET', followed by ADDITIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL ELEMENTS IN THE PRESIDENT'S STATE OF THE UNION ADDRESS: RESPONSIBILITY, OPPORTUNITY AND THE ENVIRONMENT'", THE WHITE HOUSE, January 27, 2000.

"DEMOCRATIC CAPITALISM: THE ULTIMATE TRIUMPH OF THE WORKER", a Guest Column by Jack Kemp, Distinguished Fellow, Competitive Enterprise Institute, and Co-Director, Empower America in the March 2000 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "FEBRUARY 2, 2000 HEARING OF THE COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT REFORM, SUBCOMMITTEE ON NATIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH, NATURAL RESOURCES AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS, UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES: 'Kyoto and the Internet: the Energy Implications of the Digital Economy'". Special Report # 2: "IMPROVING ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT, AND MANAGEMENT THROUGH A GIS-ENABLED EXPERT SYSTEM APPROACH: NOBILITY EM", by Monique Cornish, Promotions & Communications Manager, Nobility Environmental Software Systems Inc. Special Report # 3: "RECONCILING OBSERVATIONS OF GLOBAL TEMPERATURE CHANGE: Summary of the Key Findings of the National Academy of Sciences Report" by Dr. Anthony D. Socci, Coordination Office, US Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC. Special Report # 4: "A GUIDEBOOK FOR BROWNFIELD PROPERTY OWNERS, New Handbook Helps Landowners Clean Up Brownfields'", from the Environmental Law Institute.

"EARTH SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT: THE NEW FRONTIER", a Guest Column by Brad Alenby, EH&S Vice President, AT&T, in the April 2000 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "THE RIGHT CONDITIONS: THE WORLD BANK, STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT, AND FOREST POLICY REFORM", a World Resources Institute Study by Frances J. Seymour and Navroz K. Dubash, et al.. Special Report # 2: "SYMPOSIUM ON LEGAL IMPLICATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ELECTRONIC REPORTING", an ELI Meeting Summary. Special Report # 3: "TRIAL, ERROR, AND PERFORMANCE: THE ELEMENTS OF A COMPLIANCE-FOCUSED ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM", by Michael J. Penders and Steven W. Sisk.

"HOW ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS CAN DISCOURAGE POLLUTION PREVENTION: CASE STUDIES OF BARRIERS TO INNOVATION", a Guest Column by Byron Swift, Environmental Law Institute, in the May 2000 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "ONE-STOP SHOPPING FOR FEDERAL TECHNOLOGIES: THE FEDERAL LABORATORY CONSORTIUM FOR TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER", by Jennifer Begley, Federal Laboratory Consortium. Special Report # 2: "Extracts from: PURE PROFIT: THE FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE", by Robert Repetto and Duncan Austin, World Resources Institute. Special Report # 3: "COMBINED HEAT AND POWER: KEY TECHNOLOGIES FOR PROTECTING THE ATMOSPHERE", by David A. Bassett.

"GOVERNOR GEORGE W. BUSH, CANDIDATE FOR THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, ON BROWNFIELDS CLEANUPS AND REDEVELOPMENT, AND ON NATURE CONSERVATION", a Guest Column in the July - August 2000 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "VOLUNTARY ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE ACT (VEPA) ADOPTED BY ARIZONA STATE IN RECORD TIME", by David W. Ronald, Chief, Environmental Crimes Unit, Criminal Division, Office of the Attorney General, State of Arizona. Special Report # 2: "THE BIOSAFETY PROTOCOL: WHAT IT DOES AND DOES NOT DO", by David B. Sandalow, U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs. Special Report # 3: OPPORTUNITY KNOCKS: CAPTURING POLLUTION REDUCTIONS AND CONSUMER SAVINGS FROM UPDATED APPLIANCE EFFICIENCY STANDARDS, A Report Prepared for the Appliance Standards Awareness Project by the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. Special Report # 4: "BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FOOD AND AGRICULTURE": Facts and Fears, A Progressive Policy Institute POLICY BRIEF by Megan M. Susman. Special Report # 5: "WARMING UP: The real evidence for the greenhouse effect", by Gregg Easterbrook

"VICE PRESIDENT AL GORE, CANDIDATE FOR THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, ON ENERGY SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT TRUST'", a Guest Column in the September - October 2000 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "FORD MOTOR COMPANY 1999 CORPORATE CITIZENSHIP REPORT: Excerpts". Special Report # 2 "IN HARM'S WAY: TOXIC THREATS TO CHILD DEVELOPMENT", a Report by the Greater Boston Physicians for Social Responsibility. Special Report # 3: "ADDRESSING END-OF-LIFE ELECTRONICS THROUGH DESIGN": a Compendium of Design-For-Environment Efforts of the Electronics Industries Alliance. Special Report # 4: "ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING FOR THE 21ST CENTURY", A Report of the National Science Board of the National Science Foundation. Special Report # 5: "THE EUROPEAN UNION & GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: A Review of Five National Programmes", Pew Center on Global Climate Change. Special Report # 6: "KYOTO -- THE BEST WE CAN DO OR FATALLY FLAWED?", a speech by Eileen Claussen, President, Pew Center on Global Climate Change.

"RALPH NADER, PAT BUCHANAN, AND HARRY BROWNE, GREEN, REFORM AND LIBERTARIAN PARTY CANDIDATES FOR THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, ON VARIOUS ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES", a Guest Column in the November - December 2000 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "INTERDISCIPLINARY OCEAN SCIENCE IS EVOLVING AND A SYSTEMS APPROACH IS ESSENTIAL", by Allan R. Robinson, James J. McCarthy and Brian J. Rothschild. Special Report # 2: "REINSURANCE REGULATION IN A GLOBAL MARKETPLACE: A VIEW FROM THE UNITED STATES", Debra J. Hall, Senior Vice President and General Counsel, Reinsurance Association of America (RAA), Washington, D.C. Special Report # 3: "NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION & TRAINING FOUNDATION'S (NEETF) INSTITUTE FOR CORPORATE ENVIRONMENTAL MENTORING". Special Report # 4: "REFUSING TO REPEAT PAST MISTAKES, How the Kyoto Climate Change Protocol would disproportionately threaten the economic well-being of Blacks and Hispanics in the United States. Special Report # 5: "NEW EEA REPORT GAUGES ECO-FRIENDLINESS OF MAIN ECONOMIC SECTORS", The European Environment Agency.

"THE IPCC ASSESSMENT OF GLOBAL WARMING 2001", a Guest Column by Kevin E. Trenberth with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, in the Spring 2001 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "TECHNOLOGIES TO REDUCE CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS IN THE NEXT DECADE", by Arthur H. Rosenfeld, Tina M. Kaarsberg, and Joseph Romm. Special Report # 2: "DEER OVERABUNDANCE" by Donald L. Gibbon. Special Report # 3: "A REPORT TO THE 43rd PRESIDENT AND 107th CONGRESS: Managing for Results at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency". Special Report # 4: "THE HANGING CHADS OF INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW: TOWARDS THE BETTER USE OF TECHNOLOGY AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT TO DETECT VIOLATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS, COMBAT TRANSNATIONAL CRIME, AND REFORM ENVIRONMENTAL LAW AND TRADE", by Michael Penders and David Ronald. Special Report # 5: "A REVIEW OF MILITARY AVIATION AND SPACE ISSUES: NEXT GENERATION INSTALLATIONS AND RANGES", by Michael Chipley, Ph.D.. Special Report # 6: ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVES' 2ND SPECIAL EDITION of November 2000, a publication of the Tellus Institute.

"THIRD UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES (LDC-III): a Guest Column by Klaus Toepfer, Executive Director, U.N. Environment Program, in the Summer 2001 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "BLUEPRINT 2001: DRAFTING ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY FOR THE FUTURE", A Report of The Business Roundtable (BRT). Special Report # 2: "A REVIEW OF MILITARY AVIATION ISSUES AND SPACE ISSUES: AVIATION AND AEROSPACE NOISE" by Michael Chipley, Ph.D.. Special Report # 3: "LICENSE TO INNOVATE: An Agenda to Modernize the Tools of Environmental Protection" by Debra Knopman. Special Report # 4: "JUST SAY NO TO GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS TARGETS: The Kyoto Protocol's targets are impeding our efforts to deal with climate change" by Frank N. Laird. Special Report # 5: "THE BUSH NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY: MOVING FORWARD OR LOOKING BACKWARD?" by Michael Marvin Executive Director, The Business Council for Sustainable Energy. Special Report # 6: "W. THE ENVIRONMENTALIST HEALTH NUT" by Gregg Easterbrook.

"RISKS OF CONFLICT: POPULATION AND RESOURCE PRESSURES": a Guest Column by Sir Crispin Tickell in the Fall 2001 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "US CONTEMPLATES LIFE WITHOUT KYOTO", Global Environmental Change Report, Volume XIII, Number 14, 27 July 2001. Special Report # 2: "LARRY LINDSEY, ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT FOR ECONOMIC POLICY, KEYNOTE ADDRESS GIVEN AT THE 26TH ANNUAL AAAS, COLLOQUIUM ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY". Special Report # 3 "S.1008: CLIMATE CHANGE STRATEGY AND TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION ACT OF 2001'". Special Report # 4: CLIMATE CHANGE: KYOTO PROTOCOL , NEXT STEPS FOR NORTH-SOUTH COOPERATION, MARKET-BASED MECHANISMS TO COMBAT GLOBAL WARMING", Report of a Panel Discussion convened by the NGO Committee on Sustainable Development, Sponsored by the United Nations Environment Programme. Special Report # 5: "KYOTO-BONN AGREEMENT: A FEW FACTS TO CONSIDER ABOUT THE FUTURE ROLE OF GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS", Analysis by John Palmisano, Managing Director and Editor, Evolution Markets LLC. Special Report # 6: "THE GREEN BUSINESS NETWORK: HELPING LARGE AND SMALL COMPANIES ALIGN ENVIRONMENTAL AND BUSINESS SUCCESS", By Joel Makower, Founder,GreenBiz.com, and Christine Coughlin, Director, Green Business Network.

"THE PERILS OF PRECISION", a Guest Column by Lisa Heinzerling in the Winter 2001 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "EPA RESPONSES TO SEPTEMBER 11: WORLD TRADE CENTER & PENTAGON DISASTER SITES, PLUS WATER SECURITY AND TERRORIST ATTACKS". Special Report # 2: "O.S.H.A.'S NEW ANTHRAX MATRIX'". Special Report # 3: "FEMA'S RAPID RESPONSE INFORMATION SYSTEM ( RRIS')". Special Report # 4 "S. 1602 - THE CHEMICAL SECURITY ACT OF 2001'". Special Report # 5: "DONALD A. HENDERSON, M.D., M.P.H. TO HEAD NEW H.H.S. OFFICE OF PUBLIC HEALTH PREPAREDNESS". Special Report # 6: "THE MODEL STATE EMERGENCY HEALTH POWERS ACT".

"PRESIDENT BUSH SIGNS INTO LAW H.R. 2869, THE SMALL BUSINESS LIABILITY RELIEF AND BROWNFIELDS REVITALIZATION ACT OF 2002", a Guest Column by President George W. Bush in the Spring 2002 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "HR. 3310 & S. 1715, 107th U.S. CONGRESS: FEDERAL "BIO-TERROR" LEGISLATION, TEXT AND STATUS OF PENDING BILLS". Special Report # 2: " TAKING STOCK 1998': NORTH AMERICAN POLLUTANT RELEASES AND TRANSFERS" from the Commission for Environmental Cooperation of North America (CEC), July 2001. Special Report # 3: "ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER AFTER THE SEPTEMBER 11, 2001 ATTACK", from the U. S. Geological Survey, Open File Report OFR-01-0429. Special Report # 4: "HOT AIR AND COLD WATER: THE UNEXPECTED FALL IN CHINA'S ENERGY USE", from CHINA ENVIRONMENT SERIES - ISSUE 43, by Jonathan E. Sinton and David G. Fridley. Special Report # 5: "CONTAGION AND STABILITY: IMPLICATIONS FOR U.S. FOREIGN POLICY - If Infectious Disease Threatened South Asian Regional Stability, How Should the United States and the World React?" a Policy Brief from the Environmental Change and Security Project, Woodrow Wilson International Center For Scholars. Special Report # 6: "BUSH ADMINISTRATION'S "CLEAR SKIES" & "GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE" INITIATIVES: U.S. RESPONSE TO THE KYOTO PROTOCOL.

"CHANGING COURSE", a Guest Column by former Vice President Al Gore in the Summer 2002 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "PUBLIC HEALTH SECURITY AND BIOTERRORISM PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE ACT OF 2002". Special Report # 2: "ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES", by Ruth Greenspan Bell & Clifford Russell. Special Report # 3: "BENCHMARKING AIR EMISSIONS OF THE 100 LARGEST ELECTRIC GENERATION OWNERS IN THE U.S.--2000", a joint publication of Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies (CERES), and Public Service Enterprise Group (PSEG). Special Report # 4: "GEO-3: GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL OUTLOOK 3", a report of the United Nations Environment Programme. Special Report # 5: "ANATOMY OF EARLY' CARBON SEQUESTRATION TRADING", by Dennis M. King, Ph.D. Special Report # 6: "U.S. CLIMATE ACTION REPORT 2002", Introduction and Overview.

"TERRORISM INSURANCE LEGISLATION, MITIGATION AND RISK MANAGEMENT: LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE ENVIRONMENT THAT CONGRESS SHOULD NOT IGNORE", a Guest Column by Bruce Freed in the Fall 2002 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "PRESIDENT BUSH ANNOUNCES HEALTHY FORESTS INITIATIVE'". Special Report # 2: "SEA LEVEL RISE AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN BERMUDA". Special Report # 3: "HOUSE FINANCIAL SERVICES JOINT SUBCOMMITTEE ON OVERSIGHT AND INVESTIGATIONS AND HOUSE SUBCOMMITTEE ON HOUSING AND COMMUNITY OPPORTUNITY HEARING ON MOLD: A GROWING PROBLEM". Special Report # 4: "COUGH AND BRONCHIAL RESPONSIVENESS IN FIREFIGHTERS AT THE WORLD TRADE CENTER SITE", by David J. Prezant, M.D., et al., in The New England Journal of Medicine. Special Report # 5: CHANGING OIL: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS AND SHAREHOLDER VALUE IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY", A New Report From the World Resources Institute, Duncan Austin and Amanda Sauer, Co-Authors. Special Report # 6: "LATEST FINDINGS ON NATIONAL AIR QUALITY: 2001 STATUS AND TRENDS", U.S. EPA, September 2002.

"DEFEATING THE OIL WEAPON", a Guest Column by R. James Woolsey in the Winter 2002 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "MONITORING INTERNATIONAL GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS TRADING", by Ruth Greenspan Bell. Special Report # 2: "THE STATE OF THE NATION'S ECOSYSTEMS", a new report from the H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment. Special Report # 3 "GAS HYDRATE IN THE OCEAN ENVIRONMENT", by William P. Dillon, U.S. Geological Survey. Special Report # 4 "INDICATORS OF OCEAN HEALTH AND HUMAN HEALTH: DEVELOPING A RESEARCH AND MONITORING FRAMEWORK", by Anthony Knap et al. Special Report # 5: "STANFORD UNIVERSITY ANNOUNCES THE CREATION OF THE GLOBAL CLIMATE AND ENERGY PROJECT (G-CEP)". Special Report # 6: "REPORT OF THE AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION DELEGATION TO THE WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT".

"EXPLORING THE ROLE OF SCIENCE IN FOREIGN POLICY", a Guest Column by U.S. Secretary of State Colin L. Powell in the Spring 2003 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1 "PREVENTATIVE PHOTO-BENCHMARKING OF NATURE FOR USE IN SUBSEQUENT ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS: THE CALIFORNIA COASTLINE PROJECT". Special Report # 2: "DATA FUSION IN CORAL REEF MAPPING: WORKING AT MULTIPLE SCALES WITH SeaWiFS AND ASTRONAUT PHOTOGRAPHY", by Julie A. Robinson,et al.. Special Report # 3: "ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AND DISPUTE RESOLUTION", by Ann L. MacNaughton and Jay G. Martin. Special Report # 4: "PREPARING FOR REALITY: PROTECTING AGAINST WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION", A Hearing of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs Held on Friday, June 28, 2002, Testimony of Margaret A. Hamburg, M.D., Vice President of Biological Programs, Nuclear Threat Initiative. Special Report # 5: "ECO-TERRORISM, ENVIRONMENTAL CRIME, AND INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY", Michael J. Penders, President, Environmental Security International. Special Report # 6: "NUCLEAR SECURITY IN A NEW WORLD", by Richard A. Meserve Chairman, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.


"RESOURCE CONFLICT & OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM", a Guest Column by Michael T. Klare, Ph.D. in the Summer 2003 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1 "'GARDEN OF EDEN' IN SOUTHERN IRAQ LIKELY TO DISAPPEAR COMPLETELY IN FIVE YEARS UNLESS URGENT ACTION TAKEN". Special Report # 2: "SAN FRANCISCO BAY RESTORATION: SALT MARSH RECLAMATION MOVES AHEAD". Special Report # 3: "CHEMICAL SECURITY ACT OF 2003: S. 157". Special Report # 4: "CHEMICAL FACILITIES SECURITY ACT OF 2003: S. 994". Special Report # 5: "THE SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME (SARS)". Special Report # 6: "SUPERCOMPUTING AND CLIMATE CHANGE: JAPAN'S NEW EARTH SIMULATOR'".


"PRESIDENT GEORGE W. BUSH ON THE BLACKOUT OF 2003", a Guest Column in the Fall 2003 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION POLICY", Testimony by Mr. David Cook, General Counsel, North American Electric Reliability Council. Special Report # 2: "MAKING THE NATION SAFER: THE ROLE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN COUNTERING TERRORISM", a report of the National Research Council. Special Report # 3: "FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION: STANDARD MARKET DESIGN ("SMD") & WHOLESALE POWER MARKET PLATFORM". Special Report # 4: "H.R. 1338: A bill to amend the Federal Power Act to provide for Federal and State coordination of permitting for electric transmission facilities, and for other purposes". Special Report # 5: "THE ENERGY POLICY ACT OF 2003: H.R. 1664 - A bill to enhance energy conservation and research and development, to provide for security and diversity in the energy supply for the American people, and for other purposes." Special Report # 6: "FEDERAL ENERGY LAW REFORM IN 2003: SELECT NEWS REPORTS".


" CENSORSHIP' AND THE UNCERTAIN SCIENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE", a Guest Column by Samuel Thernstrom of the American Enterprise Institute in the Winter 2003 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "CATASTROPHIC CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS SOCIETAL CONSEQUENCES". Special Report # 2: "U.S.-HOSTED SUMMIT BRINGS NATIONS TOGETHER TO TAKE THE "PULSE OF PLANET EARTH" VIA "EARTH OBSERVATION SYSTEM". Special Report # 3: "DOE's LEGAL AUTHORITY REGARDING TRANSFERABLE CREDITS: CEI RESPONDS TO EPICI - AGAIN", by Marlo Lewis, Jr., Senior Fellow at the Competitive Enterprise Institute. Special Report # 4: "KYOTO PROTOCOL AND ITS TARGETS: U.S. WON'T, EU CAN'T AND RUSSIA...?" From various news services. Special Report # 5: HURRICANES FABIAN AND ISABEL: A TASTE OF HURRICANES TO COME? Special Report # 6: "UN ENVIRONMENT CHIEF CHALLENGES WORLD'S FINANCIERS - UNEP Launches New Initiative to Shift Investment to Sustainable Energy".


"DEMOCRATIC ASPIRING CANDIDATES FOR THE PRESIDENCY OF THE UNITED STATES AND THEIR OFFICIAL POSITIONS ON PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT", a Guest Column in the Spring 2004 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "CHANGING DRIVERS: THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON COMPETITIVENESS AND VALUE CREATION IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY", by Duncan Austin, Niki Rosinski, Amanda Sauer, Colin Le Duc. Special Report # 2: "PULITZER PRIZE WINNER JARED DIAMOND SPEAKS ON ENVIRONMENT, POPULATION AND HEALTH", a talk given at the Environmental Change and Security Project of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Special Report # 3: "SPACE JUNK RAISES FEARS FOR ISS". Special Report # 4: "CLIMATE COLLAPSE: The Pentagon's Weather Nightmare..." Special Report # 5: "COMPETITIVE ENTERPRISE INSTITUTE OBLIGES BUSH ADMINISTRATION TO RETREAT ON CLIMATE SCIENCE CLAIMS THANKS TO FDQA". Special Report # 6: "AL GORE SPEAKS ON GLOBAL WARMING AND THE ENVIRONMENT".


"PRESIDENT BUSH ANNOUNCES WETLANDS INITIATIVE ON EARTH DAY", a Guest Column in the Summer 2004 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "ISLAND PARADISES, OCEANS & THREATS FROM MODERN WASTE". Special Report # 2: "THE NEED FOR STRENGTHENED INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE", by Simone Lovera, International Campaign Coordinator, Friends of the Earth International. Special Report # 3: "FREAK HURRICANE IN SOUTH ATLANTIC - Debate Continues as to its True Nature and Origins". Special Report # 4: "ET TU, EDISON?", by Marlo Lewis, Jr., Competitive Enterprise Institute. Special Report # 5: "THE WEATHER CHANNEL ANNOUNCES ITS POSITION ON GLOBAL WARMING". Special Report # 6: "KOSOVO CONFLICT HOT SPOTS CLEANED UP".


"RALPH NADER, INDEPENDENT CANDIDATE FOR PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, ON ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY & OCEANS", a Guest Column in the Fall 2004 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "CRIMES AGAINST NATURE", by Robert F. Kennedy Jr.. Special Report # 2: "KENNEDY'S CRIMES AGAINST FACT: RFK JR. MISFIRES", by Jonathan H. Adler. Special Report # 3: "ONLINE NETWORK HELPS AGENCIES KEEP TABS ON THE ENVIRONMENT". Special Report # 4: "U.S. MILITARY PICKS IBM TO BUILD SUPERCOMPUTER DEVICE WILL MODEL ATMOSPHERE, OCEANS". Special Report # 5: "TSUNAMI THREATENS ATLANTIC RIM NATIONS -EASTERN UNITED STATES PARTICULARLY AT RISK". Special Report # 6: "GLOBAL WARMING - Why Business Is Taking It So Seriously".


"OVERDOSED AMERICA - The Broken Promise of American Medicine", by John Abramson, M.D., a Guest Colum in the Winter 2004 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "DIOXIN: PERHAPS THE WORLD'S DEADLIEST SUBSTANCE? The case of the Poisoning of the Ukrainian Opposition Candidate". Special Report # 2: "DIOXIN: SEVESO DISASTER A TESTAMENT TO THE EFFECTS OF DIOXIN". Special Report # 3: "SILENCE IS GOLDEN, LEADEN AND COPPER - Disclosure of Material Environmental Information in the Hard Rock Mining Industry", by Robert Repetto, Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies. Special Report # 4: "CONTROLLING HURRICANES - Can hurricanes and other severe tropical storms be moderated or deflected?" Special Report # 5: "KYOTO AND THE CHALLENGE OF CHINA'S EVER GROWING ENERGY ADDICTION." Special Report # 6: "ARSON IN MARYLAND DEVELOPMENT: ENVIRO TERROR, HATE CRIME, OR SOMETHING ELSE?"


"THE SPECTER AT THE FEAST - On the occasion of the entry into force on 16 February 2005 of the Kyoto Protocol", by Klaus Toepfer, UNEP Executive Director, a Guest Column in the Spring 2005 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "KYOTO TREATY BECOMES EFFECTIVE". Special Report # 2: "THE GROWING ROLE OF NUCLEAR POWER TO COMBAT GLOBAL WARMING". Special Report # 3: "CALIFORNIA OUTPACING WASHINGTON IN CAMPAIGN AGAINST GLOBAL WARMING, WHILE AUTOMAKERS OBJECT TO NEW LAW". Special Report # 4: "Yale Scientific Magazine Science Policy Survey: Yale's Science Faculty Weigh in on Science, Bush, and the Next Four Years". Special Report # 5: "ENVIRONMENTAL TERRORISM UPDATE". Special Report # 6: "AVOIDING LIABILITY FROM SECURITY MANDATES AND REGULATORS WITH INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS", by Michael Penders, Esq..


"CALIFORNIA'S GOVERNOR ANNOUNCES STATE CLIMATE CHANGE INITIATIVE: SPEECH AND EXECUTIVE ORDER", a Guest Column in the Summer 2005 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "CALIFORNIA'S GOVERNOR ANNOUNCES STATE CLIMATE CHANGE INITIATIVE: ANALYSES AND COMMENTARIES". Special Report # 2: "US CITIES SNUB BUSH AND SIGN UP KYOTO". Special Report # 3: "UNITED NATIONS SUMMIT ON CLIMATE CHANGE & FINANCE". Special Report # 4: "BRITISH COMPANIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES AND THE NEXT G8 SUMMIT". Special Report # 5: "G8 SUMMIT: US AND CLIMATE CHANGE". Special Report # 6: "ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES, FINANCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES".


"THINKING ABOUT A DIRTY BOMB ATTACK AND ITS EFFECTS", by P. Andrew Karam, Ph.D., CHP, Rochester Institute of Technology, a Guest Column in the Fall 2005 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "GLOBAL WARMING AND THE USUAL SUSPECTS: Environmental Report Names Top Polluters". Special Report # 2: "THE SPACE SHUTTLE AND CLIMATE CHANGE: University of Illinois Scientist Measuring Shuttle Launches' Effect on Climate". Special Report # 3: "RECORD SUMMER HEATWAVE IN NORTHEAST: Hot Enough for You? June-July Top the All-time Charts". Special Report # 4: "SEVERE WEATHER THROUGHOUT THE WORLD: Droughts, Twisters, Floods: What on earth has happened to our weather?" Special Report # 5: "GLOBAL WARMING AND "HYPERCANES"? Study: Warming Making Hurricanes Stronger". Special Report # 6: "THE ENDLESS HURRICANE SEASON: Hurricane Katrina marks only half way point".


"THINKING ABOUT AN ATOMIC BOMB ATTACK AND ITS EFFECTS", by P. Andrew Karam, Ph.D., CHP, a Guest Column in the Winter 2005 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "AVIAN INFLUENZA: HISTORICAL PRECEDENTS; GROWING THREAT". Special Report # 2: "GLOBAL WARMING AND MORE FREQUENT, INTENSE HURRICANES". Special Report # 3: "POST KATRINA CLEANUP CHALLENGE". Special Report # 4: "POST KATRINA MOLD INFESTATION". Special Report # 5: "WMD & CBRN TERRORISM THREATS RISING". Special Report # 6: "DHS FINALLY TO RELEASE PROPOSED "DIRTY BOMB" GUIDELINE".


"THINKING ABOUT A HYDROGEN BOMB ATTACK AND ITS EFFECTS", by P. Andrew Karam, Ph.D., CHP, a Guest Column in the Spring 2006 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE CAN BE LIKENED TO WMD'", Speical Report # 2: "DEBATE BEGINS ON NATIONAL CATASTROPHE INSURANCE PROGRAM". Special Report # 3: "UNITED NATIONS SIGNS DISASTER MANAGEMENT PARTNERSHIP WITH DHL". Special Report # 4: "FIFTY MILLION REFUGEES IN THE NEXT FOUR YEARS FROM NATURAL DISASTERS". Special Report # 5: "GREENLAND GLACIER MELTING AND ARCTIC SEA ICE FAILURE TO RE-FORM SIGNAL ACCELERATED GLOBAL WARMING". Special Report # 6: "AIRLINES FLYING INTO TURBULENCE OVER CLIMATE CHANGE LAW".


REMARKS BY THE HONORABLE FELIX G. ROHATYN, FORMER UNITED STATES AMBASSADOR TO FRANCE, a Guest Column in the Summer 2006 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "PROTESTERS URGE BETTER CARE FOR THOSE EXPOSED TO 9/11 DUST". Special Report # 2: "TERROR DETECTION SYSTEM INSTALLED AT (PITTSBURGH SUBWAY) "T" STATION". Special Report # 3: "HURRICANE RISK RESHAPING INSURANCE INDUSTRY". Special Report # 4: "IBM ANNOUNCES ITS WORLD COMMUNITY GRID TO BE USED TO ASSIST IN CLIMATE MODELING". Special Report # 5: "HUMAN (AVIAN) FLU TRANSFERS MAY EXCEED REPORTS". Special Report # 6: "IBM OFFERS AVIAN FLU ASSESSMENT SERVICE".


FLORIDA'S HURRICANE INSURANCE CRISIS: TESTIMONY OF KEVIN M. McCARTY, FLORIDA INSURANCE COMMISSIONER, a Guest Column in the Fall 2006 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "LATEST HURRICANE WEATHER AND CLIMATE SCIENCE: HOW THE 2006 SEASON FORECAST SPOOKED AN INDUSTRY AND TURNED OUT TO BE WRONG, BUT FEARS STILL REMAIN". Special Report # 2: "POST KATRINA HURRICANE INSURANCE CRISIS: HOW THE MARKET CHANGED IN JUST ONE YEAR". Special Report # 3: "REINSURANCE INDUSTRY LOOKS TO CAPITAL MARKETS: HOW DERIVATIVES ARE HELPING CLOSE THE CAPACITY GAP". Special Report # 4: "HEDGE FUNDS: THE DOUBLE-EDGED SWORD OF EVER GREATER RETURNS AND RISKS". Special Report # 5: "HURRICANE INSURANCE CRISIS AND HEDGE FUNDS: STATE AND FEDERAL GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION SOUGHT". Special Report # 6: "TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE: FEDERAL SUPPORT STILL SOUGHT".


"THINKING ABOUT A "SMOKY BOMB" ATTACK AND ITS EFFECTS", a Guest Column by P. Andrew Karam, Ph.D., CHP, in the Winter 2006 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "ILLNESS PERSISTING IN 9/11 WORKERS, BIG STUDY FINDS". Special Report # 2: "KATRINA LOSS FOR STATE FARM: $2.7 MILLION JUDGMENT IN HOMEOWNER LAWSUIT". Special Report # 3: "CLIMATE EXTREMES ARE COMING, STUDY SAYS". Special Report # 4: "PARTY SHIFT MAY MAKE WARMING A HILL PRIORITY". Special Report # 5: "GLOBAL INSURANCE INDUSTRY SEES MORE NATURAL CATASTROPHES IN THE FUTURE". Special Report # 6: "LLOYDS CHAIRMAN DEMANDS CLIMATE CHANGE ACTION IN WASHINGTON".


"TESTIMONY OF THE HONORABLE AL GORE, before the United States House of Representatives and the United States, March 21, 2007", a Guest Column in the Spring 2007 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "PRECIPITOUS EXPANSION OF FLORIDA STATE CAT FUND LEADS TO MIXED BAG OF RESULTS, SOME UNEXPECTED, SOME UNWELCOME FOR HOMEOWNERS AND INSURERS". Special Report # 2: "NEW HURRICANE INDEX FUTURES AND OPTIONS ON FUTURES". Special Report # 3: "HURRICANE AND CLIMATE RISKS: INSURERS' LEAD MODELER IN THE NEWS". Special Report # 4: "GLOBAL WARMING IS CAUSING STRONGER ATLANTIC HURRICANES FINDS NEW STUDY". Special Report # 5: "LA NIÑA REPLACING EL NIÑO 2007 HURRICANE SEASON LOOKING MORE ACTIVE". Special Report # 6: "LOBBYING PUSH BUILDS FOR FEDERAL NATURAL CATASTROPHE INSURANCE FUND".


"DEFENSE LEADING THE WAY IN ENERGY SAVINGS", a Guest Column by Lawrence P. Farrell, Jr., in the Summer 2007 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "DEPUTY DEFENSE SECRETARY GORDON ENGLAND DIRECTS NEW ENERGY-EFFICIENCY, ALTERNATIVE FUEL EFFORTS". Special Report # 2: "MILITARY PANEL: CLIMATE CHANGE THREATENS U.S. NATIONAL SECURITY". Special Report # 3: "UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL AND SECRETARY GENERAL DISCUSS CLIMATE CHANGE". Special Report # 4: "BIRD FLU COULD BE SLOWING DOWN". Special Report # 5: "'BUSH MAKES A POWER GRAB'". Special Report # 6: "RMS HURRICANE MODEL REJECTED BY STATE OF FLORIDA".


"TWO CONTRARIAN PERSPECTIVES ON ENERGY BILLS: WHY POLITICAL WILL AND GOOD INTENTIONS WON'T SUFFICE TO GUARANTEE THE INTENDED RESULTS", joint Guest Columns by Robert Bryce and Robert W. Crandall with Hal J. Singer, in the Fall 2007 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "BILL TIES CLIMATE TO NATIONAL SECURITY". Special Report # 2: "USAF SYNTHETIC FUEL PROGRAM: SOME CLOSER LOOKS". Special Report # 3: "BIOFUELS: THE PROMISE V. THE REALITY". Special Report # 4: "THE REAL COSTS OF COMBATING CLIMATE CHANGE". Special Report # 5: "CO2 CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION". Special Report # 6: "PUTTING CO2 TO GOOD USE".


"DISASTER PLAN FOR INSURANCE INDUSTRY", Guest Column in the Winter 2007 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "LITTLE GREEN LIES". Special Report # 2: "SYNTROLEUM IN SHAKE-UP". Special Report # 3: "HURRICANE PREDICTIONS MISS THE MARK". Special Report # 4: "CONGRESS AND THE "ENERGY INDEPENDENCE" BILL". Special Report # 5: "SENATE BACKS 7 YEAR TERROR INSURANCE RENEWAL". Special Report # 6: "DOING WELL BY DOING ILL".


"BARACK OBAMA: PROMOTING A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT", Guest Column in the Spring 2008 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "IN MANY COMMUNITIES, IT'S NOT EASY GOING GREEN". Special Report # 2: "US AIR FORCE TESTS SYNTHETIC FUEL IN CFM 56 ENGINE". Special Report # 3: "BIOFUELS PROVOKING SECOND THOUGHTS". Special Report # 4: "CARBON CAPTURE: SOME DEVELOPMENTS". Special Report # 5: "THE DEMISE OF FUTUREGEN". Special Report # 6: "FROM GLOBAL WARMING TO GLOBAL COOLING?".


"THE REAL REASON BEHIND RECORD HIGH OIL", Guest Column by F. William Engdahl in the Summer 2008 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "FOOD CRISIS STARTS ECLIPSING CLIMATE CHANGE WORRIES". Special Report # 2: "GORE INVESTMENT BODY CLOSES $683MM FUND". Special Report # 3: "U.S. MILITARY LAUNCHES ALTERNATIVE-FUEL PUSH - Dependence on Oil Seen as Too Risky; B-1 Takes Test Flight". Special Report # 4: "KAREN CLARK'S CLIMATE WORK EARNS NOBEL RECOGNITION". Special Report # 5: "HURRICANE COVERAGE MAY ALSO FALL VICTIM TO CREDIT CRUNCH". Special Report # 6: "INSURERS TO BUILD RESEARCH CENTER FOR NATURAL DISASTER PROPERTY LOSSES".


"ALASKA GOVERNOR SARAH PALIN, GOP CANDIDATE FOR VICE PRESIDENT", Guest Column in the Fall 2008 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "RIDDLE OF THE BURST BUBBLE". Special Report # 2: "A FEW SPECULATORS DOMINATE VAST MARKET FOR OIL TRADING". Special Report # 3: "HEDGING CUTS BOTH WAYS FOR ENERGY COMPANIES". Special Report # 4: "COMMODITIES PRICES' FALL BRUISING SOME HEDGERS". Special Report # 5: "SASOL HEDGES ABOUT 30% (OIL EQUIVALENT) OF ITS SOUTH AFRICAN SYNTHETIC FUELS PRODUCTION". Special Report # 6: "COAL-TO-LIQUIDS PLANTS FACE SUDDEN ECONOMIC HEADWIND".


"THE CLIMATE FOR CHANGE" by AL GORE, Guest Column in the Winter 2008 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "GENERAL JIM JONES (USMC Ret.) NOMINATED AS NEXT NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISER". Special Report # 2: "EPA, INTERIOR DEPARTMENT CHIEFS WILL BE BUSY ERASING BUSH'S MARK". Special Report # 3: "CAN OBAMA KEEP NEW JOBS AT HOME?". Special Report # 4: "IS "GREENERY" ONLY FOR THE GOOD TIMES?". Special Report # 5: "LAWYERS CALL FOR INTERNATIONAL COURT FOR THE ENVIRONMENT". Special Report # 6: "CLIMATE MODELING COMPUTERS STILL FAIL TO CATCH TRENDS: TEMPORARY COOLING & ACCELERATED CORAL DIE OFF MISSED".


"CZECH PRESIDENT VACLAV KLAUS DISPUTES GLOBAL WARMING CLAIMS AT DAVOS," Guest Column in the Spring 2009 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "WILL THE STIMULUS HELP WIND AND SOLAR?" Special Report # 2: "DEMS COOL ON CLIMATE CHANGE AS ECONOMIC PRESSURES ESCALATE". Special Report # 3: "GORE PULLS SLIDE OF DISASTER TRENDS". Special Report # 4: "ARCTIC SEA ICE UNDERESTIMATED FOR WEEKS DUE TO FAULTY SENSOR". Special Report # 5: "OCEAN BUBBLING UP HALF ITS OIL RESERVES FROM SEAFLOOR". Special Report # 6: "NATURALLY OCCURRING BACTERIA CONVERTS CO2 INTO CALCIUM CARBONATE"


"WAXMAN AND MARKEY ROLL OUT MONSTROSITY", Guest Column in the Summer 2009 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "CARBON LEGISLATION IN CONGRESS". Special Report # 2: "THE BIOFUEL BUBBLE". Special Report # 3: "OBAMA TO TOUGHEN RULES ON EMISSIONS AND MILEAGE". Special Report # 4: "OIL GIANTS LOATH TO FOLLOW OBAMA'S GREEN LEAD". Special Report # 5: U.S. RELIANCE ON OIL AN URGENT THREAT'". Special Report # 6: "SUNSPOT ACTIVITY AT LOWEST IN A CENTURY".


"LIES, MORE LIES AND GLOBAL WARMING STATISTICS", Guest Column in the Fall 2009 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "CLIMATE CHANGE SEEN AS THREAT TO U.S. SECURITY". Special Report # 2: "SIX WAYS TO COOL DOWN OVER CLIMATE-CHANGE SECURITY SCARE". Special Report # 3: "FIGHTING GLOBAL WARMING WITH CIA?". Special Report #4: "CAP-AND-TRADE'S UNLIKELY CRITICS: ITS CREATORS". Special Report # 5: "CAN THE MILITARY FIND THE ANSWER TO ALTERNATIVE ENERGY?" Special Report # 6: "GETTING AROUND THE EU BAN".


"OBAMA HAS FAILED WORLD ON CLIMATE CHANGE", Guest Column in the Winter 2009 issue of FAILSAFE ®. Special Report # 1: "STAGNATING TEMPERATURE". Special Report # 2: "HACKED E-MAIL IS NEW FODDER FOR CLIMATE DISPUTE". Special Report # 3: "IN THE TRENCHES ON CLIMATE CHANGE, HOSTILITY AMONG FOES". Special Report #4: "RIGGING A CLIMATE "CONSENSUS". Special Report # 5: "'CLIMATE GATE' SCIENTIST TO TEMPORARILY STEP DOWN". Special Report # 6: "OBAMA SCIENCE ADVISERS GRILLED OVER HACKED EMAILS".



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FAILSAFE ®

THE ELECTRONIC JOURNAL OF
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SPRING 2010


VOLUME XV, NUMBER 1, 2010
COPYRIGHT © 2010 BY MICHAEL G. FRODL
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